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This  boo\  is  the  gift  of 

George  B.  King 

Ph.D.,  B.D.,  D.D. 

Gold  Medalist  in  Divinity 

Faculty  of  Theology 

Victoria  University 


Dean  of  the  Faculty  of  Theology 

United  College,  Winnipeg 










W.    O.    E.    OESTERLEY,   D.D. 


<,  V 









RlCHARO    Cl.AY    AND    SONS,    LlMlTKD, 




THE  object  of  this  series  of  translations  is  primarily 
to  furnish  students  with  short,  cheap,  and  handy 
text-books,  which,  it  is  hoped,  will  facilitate  the 
study  of  the  particular  texts  in  class  under  com 
petent  teachers.  But  it  is  also  hoped  that  the 
volumes  will  be  acceptable  to  the  general  reader 
who  may  be  interested  in  the  subjects  with  which 
they  deal.  It  has  been  thought  advisable,  as  a 
general  rule,  to  restrict  the  notes  and  comments  to 
a  small  compass ;  more  especially  as,  in  most  cases, 
excellent  works  of  a  more  elaborate  character  are 
available.  Indeed,  it  is  much  to  be  desired  that 
these  translations  may  have  the  effect  of  inducing 
readers  to  study  the  larger  works. 

Our  principal  aim,  in  a  word,  is  to  make  some 
difficult  texts,  important  for  the  study  of  Christian 
origins,  more  generally  accessible  in  faithful  and 
scholarly  translations. 

In  most  cases  these  texts  are  not  available  in  a 
cheap  and  handy  form.  In  one  or  two  cases  texts 
have  been  included  of  books  which  are  available 
in  the  official  Apocrypha;  but  in  every  such  case 
reasons  exist  for  putting  forth  these  texts  in  a  new 
translation,  with  an  Introduction,  in  this  Series. 

W.  O.  E.  OESTERT.KY. 
G.  H.  Box. 



§      I.— TITLE,    CONTENTS,    AND   CHARACTER    OF  THE  TRACTATE  .  ix 

§     II.— IMPORTANCE     OF     THE    TRACTATE     FOR    THE     STUDY     OF 


§   jv. — THE   MANUSCRIPTS 
8     V. — BIBLIOGRAPHY       .....••         xlx 



INDEX    OF   SUBJECTS      . 

INDEX    OF    BIBLICAL   REFERENCES     ....••  96 


§  I.— Title,  Contents,  and  Character  of  the  Tractate. 

THE  title  of  this  tractate  means  literally  "  Sections,"  or 
"Chapters,"  of  the  Fathers.  The  " Sections "  consist,  however,  in 
the  main,  of  short  sayings  of  the  early  Jewish  Fathers  or  Rabbis 
(properly  "Teachers");  hence  the  name  "Sayings  of  the 
Fathers,"  by  which  it  is  usually  known  in  English.  But,  in 
asmuch  as  the  sayings  are  for  the  most  part  of  an  ethical 
character,  the  tractate  often  goes  under  the  name  of  "  Ethics  of 
the  Fathers."  The  Mishnah,  to  which  this  tractate  belongs,  con 
sists  of  six  "  Orders  "  (Sedarim\  each  of  which  contains  a  varying 
number  of  tractates  ;  the  fourth  "  Order  "  is  Nezikin  ("  Damages  "), 
and  has  ten  tractates,  of  which  Pirke  Aboth  is  the  ninth.  In 
Jewish  literature  it  is  usually  referred  to  in  the  abbreviated  form 

In  its  present  form  Pirke  Abolh  consists  of  six  chapters ;  the 
contents  of  these  are  briefly  as  follows :  Chapter  I.  records 
sayings  of  Jewish  sages  from  Simeon  the  Just,  high-priest  from 
about  226-198  B.C.,1  to  Simeon  II.,  son  of  Gamliel  I.,2  who  died 
about  70  A.D.  The  names  of  the  Fathers  are  given  in  chrono 
logical  order.  Chapter  II.  continues  what  was  begun  in  Chapter  I., 
but  the  names  are  not  all  in  chronological  sequence.  The 
sayings  are  mostly  those  of  Rabbi  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai,  of  his 
teacher  Hillel,  and  of  some  of  his  most  prominent  pupils ;  the 
period  is  roughly  from  soon  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  to 
the  first  quarter  of  the  second  century.  In  Chapter  III.  the 
names  of  the  Fathers  and  their  sayings  seem  to  have  been  put 
down  in  a  very  haphazard  way ;  there  is  no  attempt  at  chrono 
logical  order,  nor  is  there  any  sign  of  arrangement  according  to 

1  See  note  on  i.  i.  2  See  notes  on  i.  16,  17,  18. 

subject-matter.  The  Fathers  mentioned  lived,  some  in  the  latter 
part  of  the  first,  and  former  half  of  the  second,  century  A.D.,  and 
others  during  the  second  century;  none  are  of  later  date  than 
this.  It  is  the  same  in  Chapter  IV.,  though  two  Fathers  are 
mentioned  who  lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  third  century. 
In  Chapter  V.  the  sayings  are  all  anonymous,  and  they  are  of 
a  character  different  from  those  of  the  earlier  chapters  ;  they  are 
for  the  most  part  tabulations  of  certain  things  by  number,  this 
idea  being  a  development  of  something  similar  found  in  some 
passages  of  the  Book  of  Proverbs,  e.g.  vi.i6.  Towards  the  end  of 
this  chapter  a  few  sayings  occur  which  are  more  in  the  form  of 
the  earlier  ones,  though  somewhat  longer.  But,  taken  as  a  whole, 
the  sayings  in  Chapter  V.  are  distinctly  inferior  to  those  in 
Chapters  I. -IV.  They  contain  some  quaint  legendary  matter, 
some  of  which  is  interesting  from  the  point  of  view  of  folk-lore  ; 
there  are  also  a  number  of  remarks  which  show  much  knowledge 
of  human  nature.  Chapter  VI.  is  universally  recognised  as  a  later 
addition,1  and  it  is  full  of  borrowings  from  the  earlier  chapters. 
It  is  called  "  Kinyan  Torah  "  ("  The  Acquisition  of  the  Torah  ") ; 
the  name  "  Perek  (Chapter)  of  Rabbi  Meir  "  has  been  given  to 
it  because  the  first  saying  is  one  of  his ;  it  is  quite  possible  that 
the  sayings  in  this  chapter  ascribed  to  particular  Rabbis  are 
genuine,  and  therefore  as  old  as  many  of  those  in  the  earlier 
chapters ;  but  the  greater  part  of  the  material  is  anonymous.  Its 
title,  "  Kinyan  Torah,"  is  thoroughly  appropriate. 

The  sayings,  in  general,  of  this  tractate  are  ethical-religious, 
and  are  full  of  sound  counsel  and  guidance ;  indeed,  the  tractate 
may  be  regarded  as  belonging  to  the  Wisdom  literature  of  the 
Jews  ;  it  is  often  reminiscent  of  the  Book  of  Proverbs,  which,  in 
addition,  is  quoted  again  and  again,  and  of  the  Wisdom  of 
Ben  Sira;  its  "humanness,"  especially,  constantly  reminds  one  of 
Ben  Sira's  sayings.  It  occupied,  and  still  occupies,  a  position 
in  the  Jewish  Church  comparable  with  that  of  the  Wisdom  of 
/Ben  Sira  in  the  early  Christian  Church ;  but,  more  than  this, 
it  has,  ever  since  the  eleventh  century,  been  incorporated  in  the 
Jewish  Liturgy.  It  used  to  be  read  in  the  Synagogue  service  for 

]  It  is  not  included  in  the  Mishnah  on  which  the  Palestinian  Talmud  rests  ; 
see  Lowe's  edition  of  this,  pp.  143''  ff.  (1883). 


Sabbath  afternoon  during  the  summer  months  ;  but  usually  it  is 
now  read  chapter  by  chapter  on  the  six  Sabbaths  after  Passover 
respectively  at  the  afternoon  service.  This  use  differs,  however, 
in  different  countries.  This  liturgical  use  of  Pirke  Aboth  has 
resulted  in  making  it  the  most  popular  and  best  known  of  all 
Rabbinical  writings.  "The  Talmudic  saying,  that  Whosoever 
would  be  pious  must  fulfil  the  dicta  of  the  Fathers,  is  quoted  by 
Rabbinical  commentators  in  their  introductions  to  Pirke  'Aboth, 
and  the  tract  has  been  described,  with  reference  to  this  saying,  as 
Mishnath  ha-Chasidim,  a  course  of  instruction  for  the  pious."1 

§  II.— Importance  of  the  Tractate  for  the  Study  of  the  New    ; 


As  the  oldest  collection,  in  post-Biblical  times,  of  the  sayings  of 
Jewish  sages,2  Pirke  Aboth  possesses  the  importance  which 
naturally  attaches  to  any  ancient  authoritative  document.  It 
is  also  important— its  perusal  will  show  this — as  containing  a  great 
deal  of  material  which  is  of  permanent  value  for  its  own  sake. 
But  its  special  importance  lies,  we  venture  to  think,  in  the  insight 
it  gives  into  the  way  of  thought,  the  general  mental  outlook,  and 
the  method  of  expression  of  the  early  Synagogue ;  for  the 
knowledge  of  the  Jewish  spirit  which  is  gained  by  the  study  of 
this  tractate  is  of  the  greatest  importance  to  the  student  of  the 
New  Testament.  Above  all,  the  doctrinal  standpoint  of  Judaism 
here  presented  and  put  forth  by  the  greatest  of  Israel's  early 
post-Biblical  teachers  is — we  believe  it  is  no  exaggeration  to  say 
so — indispensable  for  the  thorough  understanding  of  New  Testa 
ment  doctrinal  teaching.  Very  instructive,  too,  is  the  significant 
contrast  in  some  vital  particulars  between  its  teaching  and  that  of 
both  the  Founder  of  Christianity  and  St.  Paul.  These  things  are 
so  important  that  a  few  illustrative  example^  will  not  be  out 
of  place;  but  to  gain  a  real  insight  into  their  importance  and 

1  Taylor,  p.  3. 

a  We  are  not  forgetting  the  bool^fof  the  Wisdom  of  Ben  Sira.  This,  how 
ever,  is  not  a  collection  of  sayings  by  a  large  variety  of  sages,  handed  down  by 
word  of  mouth,  and  ultimately  gathered  together  ;  but  a  written  composition 
from  the  pen  of  a  single  writer. 


significance  demands  a  careful  reading  of  the  translation  of  the 
tractate  together  with  the  notes  ;  in  these  latter  many  references 
to  the  New  Testament  will  be  found. 

We  may  refer  first  to  a  few  of  the  many  words  and  expressions 
which  are  common  to  this  tractate  and  the  -New  Testament ; 
the  interest  of  these  is  that  they  point  to  a  common  stock  of 

i  language,  both  Hebrew  and  Greek,  lying  behind  both ;  and, 
therefore,  one  can  be  illustrated  from  the  other  in  their  use  of 
them.  There  is  frequent  reference  to  the  "wise  men,"  called 
Chakamim,  as  well  as  (though  not  so  often)  to  the  Sopherim^  or 
"Scribes,"  so  often  mentioned  in  the  New  Testament,  e.g. 
Matt,  xxiii.  34  :  "I  send  unto  you  prophets,  and  wise  men  (croqWs), 
and  scribes  (ypa/x/xarei?) " ;  cp.  i  Cor.  i.  20.  Though  an  actual 
equivalent  of  vo/xi/cos  ("Lawyer";  cp.  Matt.  xx.  35,  etc.)  does  not 
occur,  the  tractate  is  full  of  examples  of  men  versed  in  the  Law. 

)  The  term  Rabbi  (cp.  'Pa/3/3et,  Matt.  xxvi.  49 ;  Mark  x.  51  ;  John  i. 

'  39,  etc.  ;  it  does  not  occur  in  Luke)  is  found  on  every  page ;  this 
is  transliterated  from  Hebrew  to  Greek,  like  Golgotha  (Matt. 
xxvii.  23)  and  Mammon  (Matt.  vi.  24),  words  which  also  appear 
in  the  tractate  ;  but  there  are  also  a  number  of  cases  in  which 
Greek  words  are  Hebraised,  e.g.  dppa/?oov  ("earnest,"  "pledge," 
Hi.  23) ;  cp.  2  Cor,  i.  22 ;  Eph.  i.  13,  14;  tfupeos  ("shield,"  iv.  13); 
cp*  Eph.  vi.  16;  KaT?jyopos  ("accuser,"  iv.  13);  cp.  Rev.  xii.  10  ; 
TriVaf  ("writing-tablet,"  iii.  23);  cp.  irivaKi8iov,  Luke  i.  63  ;  irapd- 
K\r)Tos  ("comforter,"  iv.  13);  cp.  John  xiv.  6;  i  John  ii.  i; 
o-Troyyos  ("  sponge,"  v.  17) ;  cp.  Matt,  xxvii.  48.  Further,  there  are 
many  expressions  in  the  tractate  which  illustrate  equivalents  in  the 
New  Testament,  e.g.  the  substitution  of  "  Heaven  "  for  "  God  "; 
this,  together  with  other  means  of  avoiding  direct  mention  of 
God,  occurs  very  often ;  the  same  thing  is  found  in  the  New 
Testament,  especially  in  the  expression  "kingdom  of  Heaven," 
and  "  the  Lord  "  ( =  Adonai^  written  «  in  the  tractate).  Then  we 
have  the  expressions:  "the  world  to  come"  (ha-1 0 lam  ha-ba, 
e.g.  ii.  8),  as  distinct  from  "this  world"  (ha-'Olam  ha-zeli)  ;  cp. 
Eph.  i.  21,  6  atwv  6  fieXXwv  and  6  aiwi/  OVTOS  ;  cp.  also  Mark.  x.  30 ; 
Luke  xviii.  30;  the  comprehensive  word  Berioth,  "mankind"  as 
a  creation  (i.  12,  and  often  elsewhere  in  the  tractate),  for  which 
is  the  exact  equivalent;  cp.  Mark  xvi.  15,  Krjpvgare  TO 
Tratrr;  rfj  KTtVei ;  see  also  Rom.  i.  25  I  Vlll.  19; 


Col.  i.  15,  etc.;  "the  many"  (ha-Rabbim,  v.  20);  cp.  Rom. 
V.  19  :  ...  a/xaprwXoi  xaTe(TTa.@r](rai'  ol  TroXXoi  ;  the  use  of  the  word 
"way"(ii.  i,  etc.)  is  precisely  that  found  in  such  passages  as 
Matt.  vii.  13,  14;  Acts  xviii.  26;  xix.  9,  etc.  ;  so,  too,  Abodah^ 
i.  2,  used  of  the  "  Service  "  in  the  Temple ;  this  has  its  equivalent 
in  XaTpei'a,  Rom.  ix.  4.  Then  there  is  the  expression  "guilty  of" 
(chayyab,  i.  13,  etc.),  which  has  its  equivalent  in  €1/0^05,  Matt, 
xxvi.  66;  i  Cor.  xi.  27  ;  James  ii.  10,  etc.  The  word  "righteous 
ness  "  in  the  sense  of  almsgiving  (Zedakah\  which  occurs  often  in 
the  tractate,  is  used  in  the  identical  way  in  the  New  Testament ; 
very  instructive  here  is  the  passage,  Matt.  vi.  1-4 :  Trpoo-e^cre  TT/I/ 
SiKaiofTvvrjv  VJJLWV  ^  7roieu>  e/JLTrpocrOfv  TWV  avOpwTrwv  .  .  .  orav  ovv 
Troths  €\€rjfjLotTvvqv  .  .  .  The  expression  "  people  of  the  land " 
('am  ha-aretz\  in  the  sense  of  those  who  are  ignorant  of  the  Law, 
illustrates  John  vii.  49  :  6  o^Xos  oSros  6  /XT)  yivoxrKwv  TOV  vopov  eiVif.  The  expression  "  Peace  "  (Shalom)  for  greeting  a 
man  (e.g.  in  iv.  20  and  elsewhere)  has  its  equivalent  in  Luke  x.  5  : 
TrpaJrov  XeyeTe  Eiprjvr;  TO)  ot/cw  TOVTO>,  and  other  New  Testament 
passages.  The  form  of  quotations  from,  and  references  to,  the 
Old  Testament  is  the  same  in  the  New  Testament  as  in  this 
tractate ;  an  especially  instructive  example  is  the  expression 
"  in  David "  in  several  instances  when  the  Psalms  are  quoted ; 
cp.  Acts  i.  1 6  ;  ii.  25  ;  although  the  exact  words  do  not  occur 
in  the  New  Testament,  the  form  does,  e.g.  uin  Hosea"  (Rom. 
ix.  25),  "in  Elijah"  (Rom.  xi.  2).  We  have  also  the  expression 
"our  father  Abraham"  (v.  3);  cp.  Matt.  iii.  9;  Luke  xvi.  24; 
John.  viii.  53  :  ^  <rv  /xei£<ov  el  TOV  Trarpos  rjfJiwv  'A/3paa/x ;  Rom. 
iv.  i ;  and  the  still  more  interesting  words  in  v.  22  :  "Be  strong 
...  to  do  the  will  of  thy  Father  which  is  in  Heaven " ;  cp. 
Matt.  vi.  9,  etc. 

Then  we  have  many  thoughts  and  ideas  which  are  important 
and  full  of  interest  for  the  study  of  the  New  Testament;  the 
following  may  serve  as  examples :  In  ii.  i  it  is  said  :  "  Keep  in 
mind  three  things,  and  thou  wilt  not  come  into  the  power  of 
sin "  ;  one  is  "  all  thy  works  written  in  a  book " ;  with  this 
cp.  Rev.  xx.  12:  "...  and  the  dead  were  judged  out  of  the 
things  which  were  written  in  the  books  according  to  their  works." 
In  iii.  23  there  is  a  reference  to  the  Messianic  banquet  in  the 
words  :  "  The  judgement  is  a  judgement  of  truth  ;  and  everything 


is  prepared  for  the  banquet";  this  illustrates  such  passages  as 
Matt  viii.  1 1  :  "  Many  shall  come  from  the  east  and  the  west, 
and  shall  sit  down  (di'dKAttfrjo-ovTai)  with  Abraham,  and  Isaac,  and 
Jacob  in  the  kingdom  of  Heaven";  cp.  also  Matt.  xxvi.  29; 
Rev.  xix.  9.  In  vi.  6  the  Torah  is  spoken  of  as  "  clothing "  a 
man  "  with  humility  and  fear  "  ;  both  in  thought  and  language  we 
are  reminded  here  of  the  words  in  i  Pet.  v.  5  :  "...  be  clothed 
with  humility."  In  iv.  17  the  expression  "the  crown  of  priest 
hood  "  recalls  "  a  royal  priesthood  "  in  i  Pet.  ii.  9.  The  "  crown 
of  Torah"  (i.  13;  iv.  17  ;  vi.  7),  remembering  that  the  Torah  is 
referred  to  as  the  source  of  life  (vi.  7  and  elsewhere),  is  reminiscent 
of  James  i.  12  :  ...  "he  shall  receive  the  crown  of  life."  Striking, 
too,  are  the  words  in  iii.  6:  "  Whosoever  takes  upon  him  the 
yoke  of  the  Torah  .  .  .  ,"  in  view  of  Matt.  xi.  29,  30  :  "  Take  My 
yoke  upon  you  and  learn  of  Me  .  .  .  "  ;  also  in  the  next  verse 
(iii.  7)  the  words  :  "  When  ten  sit  together  and  are  occupied  with 
the  Torah,  the  Shekhinah  is  among  them,"  with  which  cp.  Matt, 
xviii.  20 :  "  For  where  two  or  three  are  gathered  together  in 
My  Name,  there  am  I  in  the  midst  of  them."  It  is  very 
instructive  to  notice  how  often  Christ  substitutes  Elimself  for  the 
Torah.  In  v.  19,  21  there  are  references  to  the  controversy 
or  "gainsaying"  of  Korah,  and  to  "Balaam  the  wicked,"  which 
recall  similar  references  in  Jude  n  :  "the  error  of  Balaam"  and 
"  the  gainsaying  of  Korah."  In  vi.  2  the  "  Bath-Kol "  is  spoken 
of,  and  this  idea  underlies  such  passages  as  Matt.  iii.  13-17  : 
"  a  voice  out  of  the  heavens  "  ;  cp.  Mark  ix.  7  ;  John  xii.  28-30 ; 
Acts  ix.  3-7;  x.  13,  15;  Rev.  x.  4;  xiv.  13. 

These  are  but  a  few  examples,  very  far  from  being  exhaustive, 
of  the  way  in  which  Pirke  Aboth  illustrates  the  New  Testament. 
There  are  a  number  of  other  ways,  in  addition  to  those  mentioned, 
by  which  it  could  be  shown  how  very  useful  this  tractate,  the  only 
one  of  its  kind,  is  to  students  of  the  New  Testament ;  in  the 
matter  of  customs,  manners,  numbers,  archaeological  points,  com 
parisons,  mental  pictures,  allegories,  parables,  etc.,  an  immense 
deal  is  offered  in  this  short  tractate.  To  illustrate  all  these  with 
examples  here  would  be  easy  enough,  but  space  would  not  permit 
of  it.  A  glance  at  the  notes  in  the  following  commentary  will 
show  how  often  passages  in  the  New  Testament  are  referred  to ; 
a  careful  reading  of  the  text  Vill  probably  suggest  others. 


But  even  more  important  than  all  that  has  been  said  is  the 
doctrinal  standpoint  of  Pirke  Aboth ;  for  here  we  get,  as  nowhere 
else,  the  doctrinal  position  of  orthodox  Judaism  as  this  existed 
during  the  New  Testament  period.  The  doctrine  of  God,  of  the 
I^aw,  of  Works,  of  Merit,  of  Sin,  of  Grace  and  Free-will,  not  to 
mention  subsidiary  points,  are  all  referred  to  in  the  tractate 
specifically,  or  incidentally,  or  implicitly.  From  this  point  of 
view  the  importance  of  Pirke  Aboth  for  the  study  and  under 
standing  of  the  New  Testament  can  hardly  be  exaggerated.  But 
obviously  these  things  can  only  be  referred  to  here  ;  to  deal  with 
them  at  all  adequately  a  separate  volume  would  be  required. 

§  III.— The  Authors  of  the  Sayings. 

The  authors  of  the  sayings  preserved  in  Pirke  Aboth  are  many 
in  number  ;  altogether  sixty-five  are  named.  Several  hundreds  of 
Rabbis  are  mentioned  in  the  Mishnah  ;  and  it  is  sometimes 
difficult  to  understand  why  some  of  these  names  have  been 
omitted  from,  and  others  included  in,  this  tractate.  Apart  from 
"the  men  of  the  Great  Synagogue"  (so-called)  to  whom  collectively 
three  sayings  are  attributed,  the  list  of  names  begins  with  that  of 
Simeon  the  Just ;  this  was,  in  all  probability,  the  high-priest 
Simeon  II.,  who  filled  this  office  226-198  B.C.  ;  and  it  goes  down  to 
Rabbis  who  lived  during  the  third  century  of  our  era.  Roughly 
speaking,  therefore,  we  are  dealing  with  the  sayings  of  Jewish 
teachers  who  lived  during  a  period  of  four  centuries,  or  a  little 
over — and  this  a  period  of  vital  importance  for  doctrinal  Judaism. 

A  few  words  regarding  some  of  the  most  important  of  these 
teachers  will  not  be  without  interest. 

Simeon  II.  has  an  interest  for  us  on  account  of  Ben  Sira's 
panegyric  in  Sir.  1.  1-24,  where  he  is  spoken  of  thus  : 

"  Great  among  his  brethren  and  the  glory  of  his  people 
Was  Simeon  the  son  of  Jochanan  ( =  Onias)  the  priest  .  .  . 
How  glorious  was  he  when  he  looked  forth  from  the  Tent, 
And  when  he  came  out  from  the  Sanctuary  ! 
Like  a  morning-star  from  between  the  clouds, 
And  like  the  full  moon  on  the  feast-days  ; 
Like  the  sun  shining  upon  the  Temple  of  the  Most  High, 
And  like  the  rainbow  becoming  visible  in  the  cloud  ..." 


Simeon  ben  Shetach,  of  later  date,  is  said  to  have  been  the 
brother  of  the  queen  Alexandra  (Salome),  who  reigned  B.C.  76-67  ; 
whether  this  was  so  or  not,  certain  it  is  that  he  enjoyed  great 
influence  during  her  reign.  This  influence  had  important 
consequences,  for  he  was  the  leader  of  the  Pharisaic  party,  and 
succeeded  in  superseding  the  Sadducees,  who  had,  in  the  main, 
been  the  dominating  party  hitherto.  Simeon  ben  Shetach  was  a 
great  champion  of  the  specifically  Pharisaic  interpretation  of  the 
Law  ;  and  it  was  largely  due  to  him  that  the  Pharisees  became 
permanently  the  religious  leaders  of  the  people,  and  thus  assumed 
the  position  which  is  so  graphically  reflected  in  the  Gospels.  He 
did  much  to  restrict  divorce,  which  had  become  very  prevalent 
under  the  Sadducean  regime.  He  appears  also  to  have  been  a 
great  religious  educationist,  for  he  laboured  successfully  for  the 
establishment  of  schools  in  the  larger  cities,  where  the  young 
might  be  instructed  in  the  Bible.  A  story  illustrating  his 
character  is  told  in  one  of  the  Midrashim  (on  Deut.  iii.  5)  to 
the  following  effect :  "  Once  his  pupils  presented  him  with  an  ass 
which  they  had  purchased  from  an  Arab.  On  the  neck  of  the 
animal  they  found  a  costly  jewel ;  whereupon  they  joyfully  told 
their  master  that  he  might  now  cease  toiling  [he  was  by  trade  a 
linen-draper  in  a  small  way],  since  the  proceeds  from  the  jewel 
would  make  him  wealthy.  Simeon,  however,  replied  that  the 
Arab  had  sold  them  the  ass  only,  and  not  the  jewel.  And  he 
returned  the  gem  to  the  Arab,  who  exclaimed,  '  Praised  be  the 
God  of  Simeon  ben  Shetach  ! ' "  l 

The  two  best-known  names,  however,  mentioned  in  this  tractate 
are  Hillel  and  Shammai.  Both  were,  in  all  probability,  alive  at 
the  time  of  the  birth  of  Christ.  As  is  well  known,  these  two 
were  the  originators  of  two  great  schools  of  thought  within 
Judaism.  "  It  is  notorious  that  the  Shammaites  were  rigorous  to 
excess  in  their  requirements,  and  were  the  champions  of  a  narrow 
and  exclusive  form  of  legal  piety.  Their  attitude  to  the  outside 
world  was  also  harsh  and  unsympathetic.  Their  influence  up  to 
the  catastrophe  of  A.D.  70  seems  to  have  been  in  the  ascendant  ; 
but  later  the  peace-loving  and  milder  party  of  Hillel  triumphed, 
and  the  Oral  Law  was  revised  in  accordance  with  Hillelite  views. 

1  TE  xi.  358  b. 


It  is  probable,  therefore,  that  in  the  time  of  Christ  the  question 
of  ritual  washing  of  hands,  e.g.,  was  a  party  one,  and  that  our 
Lord  strongly  opposed  the  Shammaite  view.  In  fact,  the  im 
pression  is  almost  irresistible  that  the  denunciations  of  the 
Pharisees  occurring  in  the  Gospels  were  directed  primarily  against 
a  Shammaite  section ;  this  would  explain  the  apparently  strange 
phenomenon  that  while,  on  the  one  hand,  we  read  of  these  stern 
denunciations,  it  is,  on  the  other  hand,  obvious  to  any  impartial 
reader  of  the  Gospels  that  a  most  friendly  intercourse  existed 
between  Christ  and  the  Pharisees."  l 

Gamliel,  whose  name  occurs  after  these  two  (he  died  in  A.D. 
52),  has  a  special  interest  for  us  because  a  speech  of  his  is 
reported  in  Acts  v.  34-40,  and  also  because  he  was  St.  Paul's 
teacher  (Acts  xxii.  3).  The  description  of  him  in  Acts  v.  34 
("  a  doctor  of  the  Law,  had  in  honour  of  all  the  people  ")  fully 
bears  out  what  we  know  of  him  from  other  sources.  It  should 
be  added  that  some  scholars  maintain  that  the  Gamliel  referred 
to  in  Acts  is  the  second  of  this  name,  the  grandson  of  the  former, 
who  died  about  A.D.  no. 

The  name  of  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai  is  one  of  great  importance 
in  Jewry ;  his  exact  date  is  uncertain,  but  since  he  was  a  pupil  of 
Hillel  his  activity  must  have  begun  well  before  the  destruction  of 
Jerusalem.  It  is  said  of  him  (Rosh  hashana  30 1))  that  his  life 
was  divided  into  three  periods ;  in  the  first  he  was  a  merchant,  in 
the  second  a  student,  and  in  the  third  a  teacher.2  Jochanan  ben 
Zakkai's  great  claim  to  celebrity  lies  largely  in  the  fact  that  he 
founded  the  Academy  of  Jamnia,  and  became  its  first  president ; 
so  that  it  was  he  who,  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem,  made 
Jamnia  the  official  centre  of  Judaism.  He  was  a  great  teacher ; 
one  of  his  parables  is  worth  quoting  because  it  is  so  reminiscent 
of  some  of  the  Gospel  parables  ;  in  illustration  of  something  that 
he  was  teaching  he  said  :  "  It  is  like  unto  a  king  who  invited  his 
servants  to  a  feast ;  but  he  fixed  no  time  (as  to  when  the  feast 
should  begin).  The  wise  ones  (among  his  servants)  arrayed 
themselves  and  sat  down  at  the  entrance  of  the  king's  palace. 

1  Oesterley  and  Box,  The  Religion  and  Worship  of  the  Synagogue,  pp.  129  f. 
(2nd  ed.). 

2  JE  vii.  214  a. 


They  said :  '  Though  something  may  yet  be  wanting,  the  feast 
will  soon  be  ready  ;  let  us  be  prepared.'  The  foolish  ones  (among 
his  servants)  went  to  their  work.  They  said  :  '  No  feast  without 
preparation '  (i.e.  there  is  plenty  of  time  yet).  Suddenly  the  king 
called  his  servants  in  to  the  feast.  The  wise  ones  entered  in  before 
him  fully  arrayed  as  they  were.  But  the  foolish  ones  entered  in 
before  him  with  soiled  garments.  Then  did  the  king  take 
pleasure  in  the  wise  servants,  but  he  was  wroth  with  the  foolish 
ones.  And  he  said  :  '  These  who  have  arrayed  themselves  for  the 
feast,  let  them  sit  down  and  eat  and  drink  ;  but  those  who  did 
not  array  themselves  for  the  feast,  let  them  remain  standing  and 
watch  the  others.' " l  Rabbi  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai  had  five  pupils 
who  all  appear  to  have  become  distinguished  teachers  ;  a  number 
of  their  sayings  are  preserved  in  Pirke  Aboth. 

Of  the  many  other  Rabbis  mentioned  in  the  tractate  two  more 
may  be  briefly  referred  to,  one  of  somewhat  later  date.  The  first 
is  Jekudah  ha-Nasi  (Judah  the  Prince),  the  celebrated  compiler 
of  the  Mishnah,  though  the  Mishnah  as  we  now  have  it  is  a  later 
recension  of  his  work.  He  is  known  by  the  title  of,  and  is 
spoken  of  as,  "  Rabbi  "  pure  and  simple.  His  date  is  approxi 
mately  A.D.  136-217.  And  the  second  is  Rabbi  Akiba  ;  of  this 
teacher  it  has  been  said  that  he,  "  to  a  degree  beyond  any  other, 
deserves  to  be  called  the  father  of  Rabbinical  Judaism  " ; 2  he  lived 
from  about  the  middle  of  the  first  century  A.D.  to  about  A.D.  130. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  connected  with  Bar  Cochba  in  his  revolt 
against  the  Roman  power ;  but  this  is  doubtful ;  what  is  certainly 
true  is  that  he  regarded  Bar  Cochba  as  the  promised  Messiah. 
He  suffered  death  at  the  hands  of  the  Romans,  but  whether  this 
was  because  he  disregarded,  on  religious  grounds,  the  edicts  of 
Hadrian,  or  whether  it  was  due  to  political  entanglements  on  his 
part,  is  uncertain.  One  saying  of  his  is  well  worth  quoting  on 
account  of  its  similarity  with  the  words  of  Christ  recorded  in 
Luke  xiv.  8  ff .  :  "Take  thy  place  a  few  seats  below  thy  rank 
until  thou  art  bidden  to  take  a  higher  place ;  for  it  is  better  that 
they  should  say  to  thee,  '  Come  up  higher,'  than  that  they  should 
bid  thee  '  Go  down  lower.' "  3 

1  T.B.  Shabbath  1530,  quoted  by  Fiebig,  Die  Gleichnissreden  Jcsu,  p.  18. 
a  Ginsberg,  JE  i.  304  b.        3   Wayyikra  Kabbah  1.5;  quoted  \nJE  i.  305  b. 

§  IV.— The  Manuscripts. 

The  text  of  Pirke  Aboth  is,  with  few  exceptions,  quite  straight 
forward  ;  the  various  readings  do  not  often  affect  the  sense  of  a 
passage.  In  the  following  pages  the  Hebrew  text  used  is  that 
of  Strack  (see  §  V.).  A  certain  number  of  various  readings  will 
be  found  referred  to  in  the  notes  ;  these  have  been  given  where 
they  have  seemed  to  offer  points  of  interest,  though  sometimes 
the  interest  is  slight.  For  detailed  critical  notes  the  reader  is 
referred  to  Taylor's  edition,  pp.  (i)-(si),  and  Hoffmann's  notes,  as 
well  as  those  of  Strack. 

The  more  important  manuscripts  of  Pirke  Aboth  are  the 
following  : — 

Codex  Berolin.  Orient.  627.  iyth  century.  (Pirke  Aboth  begins 
on  fol.  1 7  If.) 

Codex  Berolin.  Orient.  569.  (The  text  is  wanting  from  iv.  23  to 
the  end.) 

Codex  Berolin.  Orient.  629.  iyth  century.  (Pirke  Aboth  begins 
on  fol.  12  b.) 

Codex  Berolin.  Orient.  567.  (Contains  a  Hebrew  translation  of 
the  Arabic  commentary  on  the  Mishnah  by  Maimonides.) 

A  MS.  belonging  to  Dr.  Chamizer,  of  Leipzig.  (This  is  a  Prayer 
Book  containing  the  ritual  of  the  Jews  of  Fez,  in  North 
Africa.  Pirke  Aboth  is  furnished  with  short  explanatory 
notes  in  Arabic;  it  belongs  to  the  iyth  century.) 

A  MS.  in  Cambridge  University  Library,  Add.  470.  (Taylor's  text 
is  taken  from  this  MS.,  with  the  exception  of  Chapter  VI., 
which  is  from  an  edition  of  the  Ashkenazic  Prayer  Book. 

There  are  also  several  other  Cambridge  MSS.,  and  some  in  the 
British  Museum,  enumerated  by  Taylor. 

§  V.— Bibliography. 

Taylor,  Sayings  of  the  Jewish  Fathers  (2nd  ed.  1897). 
Hoffmann,  Mischnaiot,  pp.  327-365  (1898). 
Strack,  Die  Spruche  der   Vdter  (1901). 
Fiebig,  Pirque*  aboth  (1906). 


Herford,  Pirke  Aboth,  in  Charles's  "  The  Apocrypha  and  Pseud- 
epigrapha  of  the  Old  Testament,"  vol.  ii.  pp.  686-714  (1913). 

The  three  first  of  the  above  contain  the  Hebrew  text.  The 
following  volumes,  among  others,  have  been  utilised,  and  will  be 
found  helpful : — 

Bacher,  Die  Agada  der  Tannaiten,  2  vols.  (1884,  1890). 
Schechter,  Aboth  de  Rabbi  Nathan  .  .  .  (1887) ;  cited  as  ^^ 
Weber,  Juedische  Theologie  (2nd  ed.  1897)  ;  cited  as  Weber. 
Schiirer,  Geschichte  des  jiidischen   Volkes  im  Z.eitalter  Jesu  Christi, 

3  vols.  and  Index  volume  (4th  ed.  1901-9);  cited  as  Schiirer. 
Jastrow,  A  Dictionary  of  the  Targumim,  the  Talmud  Babli  and 

Yerushalmi,  and  the  Midrashic  Literature,   2   vols.   (1903)  ; 

cited  as  Jastrow. 

Strack,  Einlcitung  in  den  Talmud  (4th  ed.  1908). 
Krauss,    Talmudische   Archaologie,   3    vols.    (1910-12);  cited   as 

Oesterley,  Ecclesiasticus  (in  the  "Cambridge  Bible  for  Schools 

and  Colleges")  (1912) ;  cited  as  Sir. 

Abrahams's  edition  of  the  Jewish  Prayer  Book  ;  cited  as  Abrahams. 
Gerald  Friedlander,  Pirke  de  Rabbi  Eliezer  (1916). 
The  Jewish  Encyclopedia  ;  cited  SLS/£. 

It  has  not  been  thought  necessary  to  specify  the  individual 
manuscripts  in  cases  of  various  readings,  since  these  are  rarely 
of  real  importance.  The  student  who  desires  details  of  these  will 
find  them  in  the  editions  of  Taylor  and  Strack. 

The  chapter  divisions  are  those  found  in  all  printed  editions, 
but  the  verse  divisions,  which  vary  in  the  different  editions,  are 
here  arranged  in  accordance  with  the  individual  sayings.  Taylor's 
verse  divisions  are,  however,  added  in  brackets,  as  his  edition  is 
the  most  important  English  one.  In  Chapter  II.  they  are  the 
same  as  in  Taylor's  edition. 

Words  in  brackets  are  not  part  of  the  text,  but  are  added  to 
make  the  sense  clearer. 

Words  in  square  brackets  are  later  interpolations  found  in 
the  text. 

The  abbreviation  T.B.  denotes  Talmud  Babli  (the  Babylonian 



i.  (i)  MOSES  received  the  Torah  from  Sinai,1  and  he  delivered  2 
it  to  Joshua ; 3  and  Joshua  (delivered  it)  to  the  Elders  ; 4 
and  the  Elders  (delivered  it)  to  the  Prophets ; 5  and  the 
Prophets  delivered  it  to  the  men  of  the  Great  Synagogue.6 

1  Moses  received  the  Torah  from  Sinai :  Torah  (without  the 
article)  means  here  the  entire  body  of  divine  laws,  both  written  and 
oral.  It  includes  the  HE  broir  rmn  (oral  teaching)  and  the  miDD  (tradition 
[of  the  fathers])  (cp.  Matt.  xv.  i  ;  Mark  vii.  3),  as  well  as  the  Penta 
teuch.  See  further  Excursus  I.,  in  Taylor's  edition.  The  words 
"from  Sinai"  mean,  of  course,  from  God  on  Sinai.  received  :  The 
root  Vip  is  that  from  which  Kabbalah  comes,  i.e.  the  tradition  contained 
in  the  post-Mosaic  Scriptures  (see  Jastrow,  s.v.}. 

-  delivered :  i.e.  handed  down  (tradere],  from  the  same  root  as 
rmco  above  ;  cp.  the  "  Masoretic  "  text  of  the  Old  Testament,  i.e.  the 
text  which  has  been  handed  down  ;  this  comes  from  the  same  root. 
cp.  T)  Trapddovis  T&v  7rpeo-/3ur€pcoi/,  Mark  vii.  3. 

;!  to  Joshua:  See  Num.  xxvii.  18-22  ;  cp.  Josh.  i.  7-9. 

4  the  Elders  :  u  And  Israel  served  the  Lord  all  the  days  of  Joshua, 
and  all  the  days  of  the  elders  that  outlived  Joshua"  (Josh.  xxiv.  31)  ; 
cp.  Judges  ii.  7. 

:>  the  Prophets  :  "  Since  the  day  that  your  fathers  came  forth  out 
of  the  land  of  Egypt  unto  this  clay,  I  have  sent  unto  you  all  My 
servants  the  prophets"  (Jer.  vii.  25);  cp.  2  Chron.  xxxvi.  15,  16. 
AN  adds  "Judges"  after  "Elders,"  and  "  Haggai,  Zechariah,  and 
Malachi "  after  "  the  Prophets." 

()  the  Great  Synagogue  :  The  founding  of  this  is  ascribed  by  Jewish 
tradition  to  Ezra  ;  but  it  is  very  doubtful  whether  such  an  institution, 
at  any  rate  in  the  traditional  sense,  ever  existed.  This  is  the  earliest 
mention  of  it  ;  neither  Philo  nor  Josephus  alludes  to  it.  In  all 
probability  the  account  contained  in  Neh.  viii.-x.  of  the  gathering 
together  of  all  the  people  to  hear  the  Law  expounded  is  to  be  regarded 
as  the  historical  basis  on  which  later  the  myth  of  the  Great  Synagogue 
was  built. 

These  (men)  said1  three  things:  "Be  deliberate  in  judge 
ment  "  ; 2  and  "  Raise  up  many  disciples  "  : 3  and  "  Make 
a  fence4  to  the  Torah." 

2.  (2)  Simeon  the  Just5  belonged  to  the  last  (of  the  members) 
of  the  Great  Synagogue.  He  used  to  say:  "On  three 
things6  the  world  stands:  on  the  Torah,7  on  the 
(Temple-)service,8  and  on  acts  of  love."  9 

1  These   (men)   said  .  .  .  :   The   three   things   said   must   not   be 
regarded  as  having  been   formally  uttered  ;    they   probably   express 
three  of  the  most  important  sayings  which  had  been  handed  down, 
and  represented  precepts  regarding  which  there  was  a  general  con 
sensus  among  the  earlier  Scribes.     The  three  sayings  are  doubtless 
very  ancient,  for  they  express  what  were  the  most  important  duties 
of  the  Scribes,  judging  and  teaching  the   Law.     Note  the  threefold 
sayings  both  here  and  in  the  verses  which  follow. 

2  Be  deliberate  in  judgement:  lit.  " be  waiting "  or  "slow";  the 
reference  is  to  the  pronouncing  of  judicial  sentences  ;  like  the  other 
two  sayings,  this  is  not  said  to  men  in  general,  but  it  is  one  of  the 
principles  on  which  the  men  of  the  "Great  Synagogue"  (the  imaginary 
forbear  of  the  Sanhcdrin)  acted. 

3  Raise  up  many  disciples  :  for  the  purpose  of  handing  down  the 
traditions  ;  "disciples"  =  ^aOrjrai. 

4  a  fence  :  "  Impose  additional  restrictions  so  as  to  keep  at  a  safe 
distance  from  forbidden  ground  "  (Taylor). 

5  Simeon  the  Just:    Probably  Simeon  II.,  high-priest  circa   B.C. 
226-198,    is    meant  ;    see    Sir.  1.   1-24.      Some  authorities  think  that 
his  grandfather,  Simeon   I.,  is  meant ;  he  was  high-priest  about  B.C. 
300;    Josephus  (Antiq.   XII.   ii.  4)  speaks  of  him  as  the  "Just';  or 
"  Righteous,"  but  the  epithet  would  apply  equally  to  his  grandson, 
judging  from  the  panegyric  of  Ben-Sira,  as  "  Great  among  his  brethren, 
and  the  glory  of  his  people." 

6  On  three  things  .  .  . :  Le.  the  neglect  of  these  three  things  would 
entail  the  downfall  of  the  world.     See  verse  18,  where  the  utterance 
by  another  Rabbi  on  the  same  subject  is  differently  expressed.    Strack 
aptly  quotes  Nedarim  32 £  (T.B.)  :  "  Great  is  the  Torah,  for  if  it  were 
not,  Heaven  and  earth  could  not  exist. ;; 

7  the  Torah :  with  the  art.  here,  and    therefore   referring  to  the 
Pentateuch,  probably. 

8  the  (Temple-)service  :    ^Abodah  ;  AN  specifically  mentions  the 
worship  of  the  Temple  ;  the  word  was  only  used  in  reference  to  prayer 
after  the  destruction  of  the  Temple.    Here  it  =  j?  Xarpt/a;  cp.  Rom.  ix.  4. 

p  acts  of  love  :  These  refer  to  such  things  as  sympathy,  forbearance, 

3-  (3)  Antigonos,1  a  man  of  Socho,2  received  the  tradition2  from 
Simeon  the  Just.  He  used  to  say  :  "  Be  not  like4  slaves 
who  minister  unto  (their)  lord  on  condition  of  receiving 
a  reward  ;  but  be  like  unto  slaves  who  minister  unto 
(their)  lord  without  (expecting)  to  receive  a  reward ;  and 
let  the  fear  of  Heaven  5  be  upon  you." 

4.  (4)   Jose  ben  Joezer  of  Zeredah  G  and  Jose  ben  Jochanan  "  of 

mercy,  charitableness,  etc.,  as  distinct  from  almsgiving  (rips  =  lit. 
"  righteousness  ").  The  three  things  on  which  the  world  stands  thus 
deal  with  (i)  God's  relationship  with  man  ;  (2}  man's  relationship  with 
God  ;  (3)  man's  relationship  with  his  fellow-creatures. 

1  Antigonos  :  A  Greek  name  ;  nothing  further  is  known  of  him  ; 
other  Greek  names  occur  in  iii.  10  and  elsewhere. 

-  a  man  of  Socho:  "a  man  of"  (&#)  implies  that  he  was  a  man 
of  distinction.  Socho  is  mentioned  as  a  city  in  Judaea,  Josh.  xv.  35  ; 
i  Sam.  xvii.  I. 

;!  received  the  tradition:  See  above  under  verse  i,  and  cp.  Sir. 
viii.  9  :  "  Reject  not  the  tradition  of  the  aged,  which  they  heard  from 
their  fathers." 

4  Be  not  like  .  .  . :  cp.  Luke  xvii.  7-10. 

5  the  fear  of  Heaven  :  i.e.  of  God  ;  with  this  avoidance  of  the 
direct  mention  of  God  cp.  the  frequent  phrase  in  the  Gospels  "  king 
dom  of  Heaven." 

u  Jose  .  .  .  Zeredah  :  Jose  is  an  abbreviation  of  Joseph  ;  he  lived 
about  140  B.C.  Zeredah  is  probably  to  be  identified  with  Zarethan  in 
Ephraim,  in  the  hill-country  above  the  Jordan  valley  ;  see  i  Kings 
xi.  26  ;  2  Chron.  iv.  17. 

7  In  verses  4,  6,  8,  10,  12  two  of  the  Fathers  are  always  mentioned 
together  ;  these  are  called  Ztigotli  ("  pairs  "),  a  name  given  to  the 
chief  exponents  of  the  Law  prior  to  the  time  of  the  J\innaim  (i.e. 
"Teachers"),  whose  period  was  from  A.D.  10-220.  These  ten  teachers 
all  lived,  therefore,  in  pre-Christian  times.  According  to  tradition,  the 
Ztigoth  always  stood  at  the  head  of  the  Sanhedrin,  the  first-named 
having  been  the  President,  or  Nasi  ("Prince"),  the  other  the  Vice- 
President,  or  Ab  Beth-Din  ("  Father  of  the  Court  ")  ;  this  is  stated  in 
the  tractate  Chagigah  ii.  i  (p  m  maw  cnb  rr:sn  cwro  vn  o'airann).  This, 
however,  cannot  be  regarded  as  historical,  for  the  evidence  both 
of  Josephusand  of  the  New  Testament  points  to  the  high-priest  as  the 
head  of  the  Sanhedrin  ;  see  Antiq.  XX.  x.  i  (end):  ".  .  .  and  the  high- 
priests  were  entrusted  with  a  dominion  over  the  nation";  cp.  also 
Contra  Apion.  ii.  23  (beginning),  and  Matt.  xxvi.  3,  57;  John  xviii.  12  ft.; 

13    2 

Jerusalem  received  (the  Torah)  from  them.1  Jose  ben 
Joezer  of  Zeredah  said  :  "  Let  thy  house  be  a  meeting- 
place  for  the  wise  ; 2  and  bedust  thyself  with  the  dust  of 
their  feet;3  and  drink  in4  their  words  with  eagerness/'5 

5.  (5)  Jose  ben  Jochanan  of  Jerusalem  said:  "Let  thy  house 
be  opened  wide";  and  "  Let  the  needy  be  thy  family";6 
and  "Talk  not  overmuch  with  women."7 

Acts  v.  I7ff.;  vii.  I  ;  ix.  I,  2  ;  xxii.  5  ;  xxiii.  2,  4;  xxiv.  I.  It  is  not  until 
post-Mishnic  times  that  we  find  Arasi  and  Ab  Beth-Din  used  in  this 
way  ;  Nasi  is  otherwise  always  used  in  reference  to  a  ruling  prince 
or  even  king  ;  and  the  very  name  Ab  Beth-Din  implies,  not  a  sub 
ordinate  position,  but  that  of  head  over  the  "  House  of  the  Court," 
which,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  was  the  Sanhedrin. 

1  from  them:  Another  reading,  but  not  so  well  attested,  is  "from 
him,"  i.e.  Antigonos,  in  the  preceding  verse  ;  but  it  may  be  assumed 
that  Antigonos  had  pupils,  to  whom  the  "  from  them  "  would  refer. 
This  reading  implies  that  "a  name  or  names  are  missing  between 
Antigonos  and  the  first  pair.  This  favours  the  authenticity  of  the  list; 
if  it  had  been  fictitious,  names  would  have  been  supplied"  (Herford). 

-  the  wise  :  The  wise  men,  or  ha-Chakamim\  this  was  the  technical 
term  applied  to  those  learned  in  the  Law.  Asa  special  class  they  are 
mentioned  alongside  of  priests  and  prophets  in  Jer.  xviii.  18  (cp. 
Matt,  xxiii.  34).  They  are  the  a-ufoi  of  the  New  Testament  ;  cp. 
Matt.  xi.  25  ;  Rom.  i.  14  ;  i  Cor.  i.  19,  20. 

:;  bedust  thyself.  .  .  feet:  Both  the  teacher  (cp.  Matt.  xxvi.  55) 
and  his  listeners  (cp.  Luke  ii.  46)  sat  on  the  ground  as  a  rule  ;  hence 
the  technical  word  Yeshibah  (lit.  "sitting")  given  to  an  academy  or 
house  of  learning.  In  Acts  xxii.  3  the  Apostle  says  he  was  brought  up 
"at  the  feet  of  Gamaliel,  instructed  according  to  the  strict  manner  of 
the  law  of  our  fathers/'' 

4  drink  in  .  .  .:  cp.  the  Midrash  Si/re  84 «  :  "As  water  giveth  life 
to  the  world,  so  do  the  words  of  the  Torah  give  life  to  the  world  ";  and 
Shir  ha-Shirim  i.  2 :  "As  water  refresheth  the  body,  so  doth  the  Torah 
refresh  the  soul."     See  also  John  iv.  14  ;  vii.  38. 

5  eagerness  :  lit.  "  thirstiness." 

0  thy  family:  lit.  "the  children  of  thy  house";  cp.  Luke  xiv.  12-14. 

7  Talk  not  overmuch  :  lit.  "  Multiply  not  talk";  in  Bibl.  Hebr.  the 

word  (rrc)   means  "meditation"  in  a  good   sense,  communing  with 

God  (Ps.  civ.  34)  ;  though  possibly  it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  "  talk"  in 
2  Kings  ix.  n.     In  neo-Hebr.  the  usual  meaning  is  "talk"  or  "con- 

(6)         T  [(Regarding)   his    own  wife,    they  said 2    this  ;    how 

much  more  3  (regarding)  his  neighbour's  wife.] 
[Wherefore  the  wise  men  said  :  "  Every  time  a  man 
talks  overmuch  with  women  he  brings  evil  upon 
himself,  and  he  escapes  from  (studying)  the 
words  of  Torah,  and  his  end  is  (that)  he  in 
herits  Gehinnom."4] 

6.5  (7)  Joshua  ben  Perachiah  and  Nittai  the  Arbelite  received  (the 
Torah)  from  them.6     Joshua  ben  Perachiah  said  :   "  Get 

versation,"  sometimes  in  the  sense  of  "whisper";  with  this  latter  cp. 
Is.  xxix.  4.  with  women  :  lit.  "  with  the  woman,"  so  that  the  refer 
ence  might  apply  simply  to  a  man's  wife  so  far  as  the  language  is  con 
cerned.  This  is,  however,  improbable,  for  such  a  direction  would  be 
entirely  uncalled  for  ;  it  is  better  to  regard  the  definite  article  as 
intended  to  express  the  generic  notion  ;  cp.  John  iv.  27. 

1  The  words  in  square  brackets  are  two  marginal  notes  added  by 
some  later  hand  ;  they  occur,  however,  in  all  the  MSS.,  but  do  not 
figure  in  AN. 

'2  they  said  :  i.e.  the  wise  men  in  general. 

:!  how  much  more:  lit.  "light  and  heavy";  -vcnm  ?p  is  a  Talmudic 

phrase  for  expressing  a  conclusion  a  minori  ad  majus ;  it  is  equivalent 
to  the  Biblical  ^  t>»,  e.g.  Prov.  xi.  31  :  "  Behold,  the  righteous  shall  be 

recompensed  on  earth  ;  how  much  Diore  (lit.  also  [it  is]  that)  the 
wicked  and  the  sinner  !  "  cp.  TTOO-CO  ^aXXoi/  in  Matt.  x.  25. 

4  Every  time  .  .  .  Gehinnom :  These  words,  slightly  altered,  are 
quoted  from  Sir.  ix.  9  (Hebrew).  he  brings:  lit.  "he  occasions." 
inherits  :  Another  reading  is  "goes  down,"  which  is  more  usual  in  this 
connexion.  Gehinnom:  cp.  Jos.  xv.  8  (c:n  >») ;  Matt,  xxiii.  15  (vibi> 

yeevrjs)  ',  the  opposite  of  jii'fs,  "  the  Garden  of  Eden." 

0  The  two  teachers  mentioned  in  this  verse  lived  at  the  end  of  the 
second  century  B.C.  In  the  Talmud  (Sorah  47 <i)  a  pupil  of  Joshua 
ben  P.  is  referred  to  who,  in  the  opinion  of  some  scholars,  was  believed 
to  be  Christ  (Krauss,  Das  Leben  Jesu,  p.  182  [1902]).  Nittai  (another 
reading  is  Matthai)  is  an  abbreviated  form  of  Nethaniah  (cp.  Jochai 
shortened  from  Jochanan).  Arbela  (=  Beth-Arbel  in  Hos.  x.  14)  is  in 
Galilee,  north-west  of  Tiberias  ;  see  r  Mace.  ix.  i  ;  the  modern  name 
is  Irbid. 

6  from  them  :  i.e.  the  pair  of  teachers  mentioned  in  the  preceding 
verse.  ' 

thee   a   teacher " ;  l    and    "  Get    possession    of    a   com 
panion  "  ;2  and  "  Judge  every  man  favourably."  3 

7.  (8)  Nittai  the  Arbelite  said:  "Keep  thy  distance  from  an  evil 

neighbour  "  ;  and  "  Associate  not  with  a  wicked  man  "  ; 
and  "  Despair  not  4  of  (divine)  retribution." 

8.  (9)  Judah  ben  Tabai  5  and   Simeon   ben   Shetach5  received 

(the  Torah)  from  them.    Judah  ben  Tabai  said:  "Be  not" 
as  those  who7  seek  to  influence  the  judges;  and  when 

1  a  teacher  :  lit.  "  a  Rab." 

2  a  companion:  Chabir\  the  word  came  to  be  used  especially  of 
men  of  learning  as  opposed  to  the  unlearned  mass,  *"aui  ha-arctz.    The 
Rabbis   often  urged   the  advantage  of  companionship  in   study  ;    in 
Eccles.  iv.  9  it  is  said:  "Two  are  better  than  one,  because  they  have  a 
good  reward  for  their  labour."    See  iii.  3  below,  and  cp.  Matt,  xviii.  20. 
In  AN  viii.  3  it  is  said  that  a  man  should,  if  necessary,  pay  someone 
so  that  he  may  have  a  companion  when  studying  the  Law. 

3  Judge   every.  .  .:    lit.  "according  to  the    scale  of  virtue";  the 
picture  is  that  of  scales,  and  the  Rabbi  teaches  that  in  judging"  a  man 
it  should  be  done  on  the  assumption  that  the  scale  in  which  his  virtue 
rests  is  the  heavier  :  cp.  Matt.  v.  7  :  "  Blessed  are  the  merciful." 

4  Despair  not :  Perhaps  more  literally,  "Do  not  give  up  the  thought 
of."     What  was  evidently  in  the  writer's  mind  was  a  warning  against 
some  such  attitude  as  that  represented  in  Ps.  Ixxiii.  12,  13  ;  "  Behold, 
these  are  the  wicked  ;    and    being  alway  at  ease,  they  increase  in 
riches.     Surely  in  vain   have   I    cleansed  my  heart  and  washed  my 
hands  in  innocency." 

5  Tabai:  Abbreviated  form  of  Tobiah  ;  little  is  known  of  him  ;  he 
lived  in  the  reign  of  Alexander  Janna>us  (B.C.   103-76).     Far    more 
important  was  Simeon  b.  Shetach,  for  it  was  largely  owing  to  him  that 
the  Pharisaic  party  gained  permanent   ascendancy  in    the    reign  of 
Alexandra  (Salome),  B.C.  76-67.    He  is  stated  to  have  been  the  brother 
of  Salome  (T.B.  Berakhoth  48  «)  ;  hence  his  influence  at  court  both 
during  her  reign  and  that  of  her  husband.     Two  special  reforms  are 
connected  with  the  name  of  Simeon  b.  Shetach,  viz.  the  restriction 
of  divorces,  which  had  become  very  common,  and  the  establishment 
of  schools  for  the  education  of  the  young. 

0  Be  not :  lit.  "  Make  not  thyself." 

"  as  those  who  .  .  .:  lit.  "as  those  prepare  .  .  ."     The  reference  is 
to  those  who  sought  to  bias  the  judge  before  the  case  came  into  court. 

the  litigants  are  standing  before  thee  regard  them  as 
guilty ; 1  but  when  they  have  been  dismissed  from  thy 
presence  regard  them  as  innocent,2  since  they  have 
received  their  sentence."3 

9.  (10)  Simeon  ben  Shetach  said:  "Examine  the  witnesses 
thoroughly;4  and  be  cautious5  with  thy  words  lest6  from 
them  they  learn  to  bear  false  witness."  7 

10.  (u)  Shemaiah  s  and  Abtalion  received  (the  Law)  from  them. 
Shemaiah  said  :  "Love  labour"  :9  and  "Hate  domineer- 

1  guilty  :  lit.  "  wicked,"  which  of  course  comes  to  the  same  thing. 
In  Jewish  law  the  litigants  were  regarded  by  the  judge  as  guilty  until 
proved  innocent.     English  law,  as  is  well  known,  is  the  exact  reverse 
of  this. 

2  innocent :  When  wrong  has  been  atoned  for,  and  the  law  satisfied, 
the  guilt  must  be  regarded  as  having  been  removed. 

3  their  sentence  :  lit.  "judgement  upon  themselves." 

4  Examine  .  ...  thoroughly  :  lit.  "  Be  redundant  in  examining."    It 
is  told  in  the  Jerusalem   Talmud   (Sanhedrin  vi.  23^)  that  a  son  of 
Simeon's  was  once  unjustly  condemned  to  die  through  the  inadequate 
examination  of  witnesses  ;  he  suffered  death.     Simeon's  saying  gains 
in  significance  in  the  light  of  this. 

5  cautious :  cp.  Ezra  iv.  22.     The  word  occurs  several  times  in  our 
book,  e.g.  ii.  10,  13. 

0  lest :  N^T,  formed  from  tj  and  NO  (=  rip);  cp.  i.  1 1.  The  meaning 
of  the  saying  is  that  if  a  judge  speaks  too  freely  during  a  trial  he 
may  reveal  his  own  opinion  on  questions  at  issue,  in  which  case  the 
witnesses  might  be  tempted  to  frame  their  answers  in  accordance 
with  this. 

7  to  bear  false  witness  :  lit.  "to  lie";  but  the  word  is  often  used 
in  connexion  with  bearing  false  witness. 

8  Shemaiah  :    According   to   Josephus   (Antiq.  xv.  i.    i)  the   pupil 
of  Abtalion;  these  two  are  probably  the  Sa/xeas  and  IIoAXtW  mentioned 
by  him  (see  also  xv.  x.  4).     They  both  lived  in  the  latter  half  of  the 
first  century  B.C. 

9  Love  labour:  i.e.  a  trade;  cp.  T.B.  Kiddushin  29 a:  "He  who 
does  not  teach  his  son  a  handiwork  is  as  though  he  taught  him  theft." 
On  the  subject  of  the  Rabbinical  teaching  on  the  need  of  labour  see 
Franz  Delitzsch,/<?w/jA  Artisan  Life  in  the  Time  of  Christ  (1902).   For 
the  New  Testament  teaching  see  Acts  xviii.  3  ;  xx.  34  ;  i  Cor.  iv.  12  ; 
Eph.  iv.  28  ;   i  Thess.  ii.  19  ;  2  Thess.  iii.  8. 

8  i 

ing "  ; l    and    "  Make    not    thyself   known  2  to  those    in 
authority."  3 

n.4  (12)  Abtalion  said:  "Ye  wise  men,  be  cautious  in  your  words, 
lest  ye  be  guilty  of  the  sin  5  (which  will  bring  about)  exile, 
and  ye  be  exiled 6  to  a  place  of  evil  waters,7  and  the 

1  Hate  domineering:  Perhaps  better  "arrogance."  The  word 
rabbanuth  is  used  in  three  senses  in  Rabbinical  writings  :  (i)  of  the 
powers  that  be,  as,  e.g,  in  the  T.B.  Pesachim  87^:  "Woe  to  the 
(royal)  authority  (rabbanuth},  for  it  buries  its  holders,  and  there  is  not 
one  prophet  that  did  not  outlive  four  kings";  (2)  in  the  more  general 
sense  of  "  superiority  "  or  "arrogance";  (3)  for  expressing  the  status 
of  a  Rabbi  (cp.  Matt,  xxiii.  8)  ;  this  usage  of  the  word  is  later.  It 
is  in  the  sense  of  the  second  of  these  that  the  word  is  here  used  ; 
cp.  Rom.  xii.  16  :  "Set  not  your  mind  on  high  things,  but  condescend 
to  things  that  are  lowly.  Be  not  wise  in  your  own  conceits." 

-  Make  not  thyself  known  .  .  .:  The' form  of  the  word  here  (hith- 
pacl}  has  the  sense  of  forcing  oneself  upon  the  notice  of  someone  ;  cp. 
Prov.  xxv.  6  :  "Put  not  thyself  forward  in  the  presence  of  the  king"; 
cp.  Sir.  vii.  5,  6.  The  words  are,  in  effect,  an  exhortation  to  be 

:j  authority:  rmih,  from  the  root  rnzh,  connected  with  M?,<O  "head"; 
see  further  the  note  on  iii.  22. 

4  The  meaning  of  this  verse  is  as  follows  :   If  the  wise  men  (Chaka- 
niim\  who  are  the  responsible  teachers  of  the  people,  are  not  careful 
in  their  teaching,  they  will  be  in  danger  of  the  sin  of  heretical  teaching  ; 
the  punishment  for  this  is  exile  ;   and  exile  is  no  place  for  the  pure 
teaching  of  the  Law,  but  one  of  evil  waters,  i.e.  heretical  teaching  ;  but 
worse  than  this,  if  the  disciples  imbibe  heretical  teaching,  it  will  mean 
for  them  spiritual  death  ;    and  it  will  then  be  seen  that  God  has  been 

5  sin :  rain  (from  the   same  root  as  the  word  translated  "  guilty  " 

above)  means  lit.  "debt"  (cp.  o^a'X^o  in  the  Lord's  Prayer, 

"  ye  be  exiled  :  Josephus  (Bell.  Jud.  i.  v.  2),  in  speaking  of  the 
power  of  the  Pharisees  during  the  reign  of  Alexandra,  says  :  ".  .  .  they 
banished  and  recalled  whom  they  pleased  ;  they  bound  and  loosed  at 
their  pleasure." 

7  evil  waters  :  cmn  nro  ;  this  omission  of  the  article  before  the 
noun  is  frequent  in  the  Mishnah.  For  this  figurative  meaning  of 
water  cp.  T.B.  Chagigah  3*7  :  "we  drink  thy  water,"  i.e.  "we  assimilate 
thy  teaching."  cp.  John  iv.  14  ;  vii.  37  ;  i  Cor.  iii.  6, 

disciples  l  that  come  after  you  drink  and  die,2  and  it  be 
found  that  the  name  of  Heaven  3  has  been  profaned." 

12.  (13)  Hillel  and  Shammai4  received  (the  Law)  from  them.  Hillcl 
said  :   "  Be  of  the  disciples  of  Aaron,5  loving  peace  and  6 

1  the  disciples  .  .  .  :  In  T.B.  Makkoth  io<7  it  is  said  that  when  a 
teacher  is  sent  into  exile  his  disciples  have  to  go  with  him. 

-  die  :  For  the  thought  cp.  Rom.  vii.  9,  10. 

:}  Heaven  :  i.e.  God  ;  cp.  "kingdom  of  Heaven";  see  also  Rom.  ii.  24. 
The  last  sentence  of  this  verse,  "and  it  be  found  .  .  .,"  does  not  occur 
in  AN. 

4  The  period  of  HilleFs  activity  was  during  the  reign  of  Herod  the 
Great  and  after,  roughly  from  B.C.  3O-A.D.  10  ;  the  date  of  his  death 
is  not  known.  He  was  known  as  Hillel  ha-Zdkcn,  "the  Elder,"  and 
was  also  called  "  the  Babylonian,"  as  he  was  a  Babylonian  by  birth. 
It  has  been  held  that  he  was  Christ's  teacher,  but  no  definite  proof  of 
this  exists.  On  the  other  hand,  that  he  must  have  been  one  of  the 
"doctors"  (teachers)  in  the  Temple  (Luke  ii.  46)  scarcely  admits  of 
doubt.  "In  the  memory  of  posterity  Hillel  lived,  on  the  one  hand,  as 
the  scholar  who  made  the  whole  contents  of  the  traditional  law  his 
own  (Sofenm  xvi.  9),  who,  in  opposition  to  his  colleague,  Shammai, 
generally  advocated  milder  interpretations  of  the  Halakah,  and  whose 
disciples  as  a  'house'— that  is,  as  '  Hillel's  school '—stood  in  like 
opposition  to  Shammai's  disciples.  On  the  other  hand,  he  was  known 
as  the  saint  and  the  sage  who,  in  his  private  life  and  in  his  dealings 
with  men,  practised  the  high  virtues  of  morality  and  resignation,  just 
as  he  taught  them  in  his  maxims  with  unexcelled  brevity  and  earnest 
ness"  (Bacher,  \\\JE  vi.  397<£).  Shammai,  Hillel's  contemporary,  was 
also  called  ha-Zaken  ;  he  was  a  native  of  Palestine.  Various  sayings 
and  acts  of  his  are  recorded  showing  his  extreme  strictness  in  the 
observance  of  the  Law.  The  controversies  between  the  "  houses  " 
of  Hillel  and  Shammai  continued  for  nearly  a  century. 

:>  Be  of .  .  .  Aaron:  The  unclassical  construction  should  be  noticed, 
as  it  often  occurs  in  the  Mishnah.  PHNT'TO  YTDbrra,  ?-^-  the  genitive  is 
not  expressed  by  the  construct  state,  but  by  ^j  preceded  bya  possessive 
pronoun  ;  see  the  same  thing  in  ii.  2  :  'rrxj  1:2  >?^p2  frv 

G  loving  peace  and...:  cp.  Rom.  xiv.  19;  Heb.  xii.  14;  and 
especially  I  Pet.  iii.  ii  in  the  quotation  from  Ps.  xxxiv.  12  ff. ;  see  also 
Matt.  v.  9.  The  mention  of  peace  in  connexion  with  Aaron  often 
occurs  in  Rabbinical  writings,  e.g.  in  AN  w.  it  is  said  that  Aaron  went 
about  as  a  peacemaker. 

TO  I 

following  after  peace,  loving  men l   and   bringing  them 
nigh  2  unto  the  Law." 

i3-3  (14)  He  used  to  say:  "  He  that  exalts4  his  name  destroys  his 
name;  he  who  increases  not5  decreases";6  and  "He 
who  learns  not7  deserves  death  "  ;  8  and  "  He  who  makes 
gain  9  out  of  the  Crown 10  shall  perish." 

1  men  :  rrna,  lit.  "creation,"  "formation,"  from  the  root  N-Q  ;  cp.  the 
phrase  in^  pViy  te»  "the  creation  of  the  world"  (Bereshith  Rabba  §  vii. 

end);  equivalent  to  KTIO-IS  ;  cp.  Mark  xvi.  15  :  Krjpvt-are  TO  eu«yyeAtoi>  navy 
TV  Kria-ei  ;  see  also  Rom.  i.  25  ;  viii.  19  ;  Col.  i.  15.  In  these  and  other 
N.T.  passages  the  word  is  in  the  sing.,  while  the  Hebr.  before  is  plur., 
but  it  is  usually  found  in  the  sing,  in  Rabbinical  literature;  see  Jastrow, 
s.v.  It  includes  humanity  as  a  whole,  which  is  important  from  the 
words  which  follow. 

2  bringing  them  nigh  .  .  .:  Hillel  here  contemplates  the  conversion 
of  Centiles   to  Judaism.     "The  Jewish  propaganda  throughout  the 
Empire  was  primarily  the  proclamation  of  the  one  and  only  God,  of 
His  moral  Law,  and  of  His  judgement;  to  this  everything  else  became 
secondary.     The  object  in   many  cases   might   be   pure  proselytism 
(Matt,  xxiii.  15),  but  Judaism  was  quite  in  earnest  in  overthrowing 
dumb  idols  and  inducing  pagans  to  recognise  their  Creator  and  Judge, 
for  in  this  the  honour  of  the  God  of  Israel  was  concerned"  (Harnack, 
77ie  Mission  and  Expansion  of  Christianity,  i.  10  [1908]). 

3  This  verse  is  in  Aramaic. 

4  He  that  exalts  .  .  . :  lit.  "  He  that  stretches  out  a  name  destroys 
a  name";  the  thought  is  parallel  to  Matt,  xxiii.  12  :  "Whosoever  shall 
exalt  himself  shall  be  humbled";  cp.  Prov.  xxix.  23  ;  Is.  ii.  17.     This 
meaning  of  the  word  1^3  is  rare  ;  its  ordinary  use  is  in  reference  to 
things  being  stretched  out  or  prolonged. 

5  he  who  increases  not .  .  . :  i.e.  he  who  does  not  increase  in  know 
ledge  loses  knowledge  ;  one  cannot  remain  stationary  here.     In  the 
Aramaic  there  is  a  word-play:  ^  FjTpin  (mosif yesiif]\  cp.  Matt.  xiii.  12. 

0  decreases  :  lit.  "  ceases,"  in  the  sense  of  coming  to  an  end,  i.e. 
even  the  knowledge  hitherto  gained  will  disappear. 

7  learns  not:  The  word   ^   means  lit.   "to  get  accustomed"  to 

something  by  use ;  hence,  by  going  over  a  thing  again  and  again,  to  learn. 

8  deserves  death:  lit.  "worthy  of  death"  =  ei/o^os  Qavdrov,  Matt, 
xxvi.  66. 

9  He  who  makes  gain :  lit.  "  He  who  serves  himself." 

10  the  Crown  :  i.e.  the  Law  ;  cp.  iv.  17  :  "the  crown  of  the  Torah," 

1  I 

14. 1  (15)  He  used  to  say  :  "If  I  am  not  for  myself,  who  is  for 
me  ?  And  if  I  am  for  myself  (only),2  what  am  I  ?  And 
if  not  now,  when  ?  " 

15.  (16)  Shammai3  said:  "Make1  thy  (study  of  the)  Torah  a 
fixed  habit"  ;  "Say  little  and  do  much"  ;  and  "  Receive 
every  man  with  a  pleasant  face."  3 

i6.';  (17)   Rabban7  Gamliel  said:  "Getsthee  a  teacher";  and 

The  passage  means  that  the  teaching  of  the  Law  must  be  done  for  the 
love  of  it,  and  not  for  payment  ;  cp.  \  Cor.  ix.  18,  and  see  also 
Is.  Iv.  1-3  ;  James  i.  12  :  "the  crown  of  life,"  for  the  Torah  gives  life 
(vi.  7). 

1  This  verse  is  in  Hebrew  again.  The  sentences  are  very  pregnant 
and  somewhat  difficult,  but  the  meaning  is  :  If  I  do  not  look  after 
myself,  who  else  will  ?  Yet,  if  I  only  look  after  myself,  what  am  I  but 
a  contemptible  creature  !  I  must  look  after  others,  too  ;  and  I  must 
do  this  now,  or  the  opportunity  will  go  for  ever.  The  saying  offers  a 
good  example  of  the  sense  of  proportion  so  often  to  be  found  in  the 
teaching  of  the  ancient  Rabbis. 

-  if  I  am  for  myself  (only)  .  .  .:  cp.  Sir.  xxxi.  15  :  "Honour  thy 
neighbour  as  thyself";  Matt.  vii.  12. 

3  Shammai :    Abbreviated   from    Shemaiah.     Whenever    he  or  his 
"  house  "is  mentioned  in  Rabbinical  writings  it  is,  as  a  rule,  to  note  his 
teaching  as  opposed  to  that  of  Hillel  or  his  "house." 

4  Make  .  .  .:  So  necessary  was  the  habit  of  a  regular  fixed  time  for 
the  study  of  the  Law  every  day  held  to  be  that  it  was  believed  that 
God  Himself  set  the  example,  e.g.  in  T.B.  Abodah  Zara  3 /;  it  is  said  : 
"  There  are  twelve  hours  in  the  day  ;  during  the  first  three  the  Holy 
One  sits  down  and  occupies   Himself  with  the  Torah";    much  the 
same  is  said  in  the  Jerusalem  Targum  to  Deut.  xxxii.  4  and  in  the 
Midrash  Bereshith  Rabba  xlix. 

•'  with  a  pleasant  face  :  lit.  "  with  the  look  of  a  pleasant  face." 
0  See  Note  at  end  of  Chapter  I.,  p.  14. 

7  Rabban  :  This  form  of  the  title  ("our  master")  is  of  greater  honour 
than  Rabbi  ("my  master"),  and  Rabbi  is  a  more  honorific  title  than 
Rab  ("master");  but,  as  it  is  said,  the  greatest  honour  of  all  is  to 
have  a  name  without  any  title  at  all. 

8  Get .  .  .:  The  identical  saying  is  recorded  of  Joshua  ben  Perachiah 
in  verse  6. 

12  I 

"Put  far  from  thee  doubt ''; ]  and  "Be  not  constantly2 
tithing  by  guesswork."  3       • 

17.   (18)  Simeon,  his  son,4  said  :   "All  my  days  have  I  grown  up 

1  Put  far  from  thee  doubt :  lit.  u  Remove  thyself  from  doubt.' 
Taylor  explains  this  as  meaning  that  whatever  doubts  a  man  may 
have  they  should  be  resolved  by  authority,  not  merely  upon  his  own 
judgement,  taking  the  words  in  close  connexion  with  the  preceding 
phrase;  but  the  word  for  "doubt,"  pro,  seems  generally  to  refer  to 

doubts  regarding  legal  requirements  ;  it  is  used,  e.g.,  of  a  doubt  as  to 
whether  a  man  has  eaten  forbidden  fat  or  not,  as  to  whether  it  was  the 
legal  quantity,  as  to  whether  a  man  had  committed  a  sin  requiring  a 
sacrifice,  etc.  (see  Jastrow,  j.z/.)  ;  the  meaning  of  the  phrase  would, 
therefore,  rather  seem  to  be  that  a  man  should  not  be  hypersensitive 
and  worry  his  head  about  legal  minutio' ;  it  is  in  opposition  to  the 
attitude  described  in  Matt,  xxiii.  16-26,  and  admirably  illustrates  the 
point  of  view  of  the  Hillelite  type  of  Pharisee  as  opposed  to  the 
Shammaite  type  denounced  in  the  Gospels. 

*  Be  not  constantly  .  .  .:  lit.  "Tithe  not  much  by  estimation";  the 
meaning  is  that  if  a  man  merely  makes  an  estimate,  instead  of  an 
exact  measurement,  of  whatever  it  may  be  that  he  gives  the  tithe, 
he  is  apt  to  estimate  it  in  his  own  favour  ;  as  Taylor  well  puts  it  : 
"  Leave  as  little  scope  as  possible  for  personal  bias  and  the  tempta 
tions  of  self-interest."  cp.  the  saying  :  "  He  that  is  faithful  in  a  very 
little  is  faithful  also  in  much  ;  and  he  that  is  unrighteous  in  a  very 
little  is  unrighteous  also  in  much"  (Luke  xvi.  10). 

:!  by  guesswork  :  reading  nvrai»}  adverb,  lit.  "by  guesswork";  others 
point  nrroiN  ("estimates")  as  plur.  of  TDIM  ;  the  former  is  preferable. 
The  root  TCN  means  "  to  conjecture." 

4  Simeon,  his  son:  The  obvious  thing  is  to  take  this  Simeon  as 
being  the  son  of  Gamliel  ;  but  Herford,  in  an  interesting  note,  takes 
another  view,  which  is  possibly  the  right  one.  He  says:  "A  much 
more  probable  explanation  is  that  verses  16,  17  have  been  transposed, 
and  that  the  Simeon  of  verse  17  is  the  son  of  Hillel  and  father  of 
Gamaliel.  In  favour  of  this  view  is  the  fact  that  this  Simeon  is  not 
called  Rabban,  as  he  would  have  been  if  he  had  succeeded  Gamaliel. 
Also,  that  Simeon  the  son  of  Hillel  was  so  unimportant  that  he  is  only 
once  mentioned  in  the  Talmud  ;  this  is  in  keeping  with  the  saying 
mentioned  in  verse  17,  which  is  the  utterance  of  a  shy,  retiring  man. 
Also,  in  verse  18,  there  is  Rabban  Simeon  b.  Gamaliel,  i.e.  the  man  to 
whom  verse  17  is  commonly  supposed  to  refer,  viz.  the  Simeon  who 
was  one  of  the  leading  men  during  the  siege  of  Jerusalem  (Josephus, 

I  13 

amongst  the  wise,1  and  I  have  not  found  aught  good  for 
man 2  but  silence  "  ;  3  and  "  Not  the  study  4  (of  the  Law), 
but  the  carrying-out  (of  it)  is  the  essential  thing"  ;5  and 
"  Whoso  multiplies  words  occasions  6  sin." 

18.  (19)  Rabban  Simeon 7  ben  Gamliel  said:  "On  three  things 
doth  the  world  stand  :  8  on  judgement,9  on  truth,  and  on 

BelL  Jitd.  IV.  iii.  9).  The  commentators,  however,  having  already 
assigned  verse  17  to  him,  are  obliged  to  assign  verse  18  to  a  younger 
Simeon  b.  Gamaliel,  in  the  middle  of  the  second  century,  who  is  here 
quite  out  of  place.  The  identification  I  propose  makes  the  arrangement 
simple  and  natural  ;  it  brings  the  line  of  Hillel  down  to  the  year  of  the 
siege,  and  stops  there,  in  accordance  with  the  remark  in  the  Talmud 
(T.B.  Shabbath  15^),  that  the  order  of  succession  was  :  Hillel,  Simeon, 
Gamaliel,  Simeon  ;  of  whom  it  is  said  that  the  four  held  office  for  a 
hundred  years  prior  to  the  destruction  of  the  Temple."  See  the  table 
uf  the  descent  from  Hillel  on  p.  14.  The  fact  that  by  transposing 
verses  16,  17  the  words  "  Simeon,  his  son ';  seem  to  make  him  the  son 
of  Shammai  need  not  cause  difficulty  ;  for,  although  this  group  of 
verses  begins  (verse  12)  "  Hillel  and  Shammai,"  it  is  quite  obvious  that 
Hillel  is  the  foremost  personality,  and  it  is  his  genealogy  which  is  given. 

1  the  wise  :  Again  the  Chakamim. 

'2  man  :  The  word  here  used,  ma  (guf\  means,  in  this  connexion, 
"body,"  "  person,"  or  "self"  (cp.  iv.  6);  therefore  the  rendering  "man  " 
is  justified  ;  but  elsewhere  in  Rabbinical  writings  it  is  used  in  various 
and  very  different  meanings,  e.g.  of  personal  duty,  of  the  essence,  or 
integral  part,  of  a  thing  ;  it  also  has  the  special  and  peculiar  meaning 
of  a  supposed  storehouse  of  souls  in  Heaven,  the  "  Guf.r 

3  ...  silence  :  cp.  iii.    13  ;  Prov.  xvii.  28  ;  Sir.  v.  n,  13  ;  xvii.  28  ; 
xviii.  19  ;  xx.  5-8  ;  James  i.  19. 

4  Not  the  study  .  .  .:  cp.  James  i.  22 ff.     The  word  for  "  study"  is 
midrash  ;  cp.  Beth  lia-Midrash,  "  House  of  Study  "  (i.e.  of  the  Law), 
in  v.  14. 

5  the  essential  thing:  lit.  "root"  (ikkar\  then  what  is  essential ; 
cp.  the  Thirteen  Principles  (Ikkarim]  of  the  Faith,  of  Maimonides. 

0  occasions  :  lit.  "causes  to  come";  cp.  Prov.  x.  19;  James  iii.  5  ff. 

7  Kabban  Simeon  :  See  note  on  verse  17. 

8  doth  the  world  stand  :  The  word  c>p  means  "enduring";  another 

reading  is  -rail"  ("  standing,"  usually  in  the  more  material  sense),  but 
this  reading  is  not  well  attested. 

9  judgement:  p  (din}  has  a  various  use;  here  it  means  "justice," 

[As    it   is  said:1  "Truth   and  judgement  of  peace 
judge  ye  in  your  gates."] 

NOTE  ON  I.  i6-II.  4. 

The  passage  i.  i6-ii.  4  evidently  did  not  belong  to  the  original 
form  of  our  book,  for  while  verses  12-15  deal  with  the  sayings  of 
Hillel  and  Shammai,  which  are  taken  up  again  in  ii.  5,  the  intervening 
passage  speaks  of  teachers  who  lived  during  the  period  from  the 
beginning  of  the  Christian  era  right  up  to  the  latter  'half  of  the  third 
century.  '1  he  intention  of  the  redactor  was  evidently  to  continue  the 
line  of  Hillel's  descendants,  though  he  only  mentions  the  four  most 
important.  It  is  difficult  to  say  whether,  in  the  verse  before  us,  the 
Gamliel  mentioned  is  the  first  or  second  of  the  name  ;  the  authorities 
differ.  The  following  table  of  Hillel's  descendants  will  show  that  it  is 
not  easy  to  decide  the  question  :  — 

Hillel  ;  main  activity  B.C.  3O-A.U.  10. 

Simeon  I.,  his  son. 

Gamliel  I.,  his  grandson  ;  first  half  of  first  century. 

Simeon  II.,  son  of  Gamliel  I.;  main  activity  50-70. 

Gamliel  II.,  son  of  Simeon  II.;  main  activity  90-110. 

Simeon  III.,  son  of  Gamliel  II. 

Judah  ha-Nasi,  son  of  Simeon  III.;  died  220  (circa}. 

Gamliel  III.,  son  of  Judah  ha-Nasi  ;  died  250  (circa}. 
We  are  inclined  to  regard  the  Gamliel  mentioned  in  the  verse  before 
us  as  ihejfrst  of  the  name  ;  and  for  this  reason,  that  after  the  sayings 
of  Hillel  (taken  up  again  in  ii.  5)  are  completed  in  ii.  8,  the  next 
teacher  to  be  mentioned  is  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai,  whose  main  activity 
was  during  the  second  half  of  the  first  century,  i.e.  chronologically  he 
should  come  after  the  Simeon  mentioned  in  i.  18,  19  (see  further  the 
note  on  verse  17;.  It  seems  more  likely,  therefore,  that  the  Gamliel 
mentioned  before  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai  should  be  the  first  rather  than 
the  second  of  the  name.  If  this  is  so,  then  the  Gamliel  (the  spelling 
Gamaliel  comes  from  the  Greek  form)  here  mentioned  is  the  one 
spoken  of  in  Acts  v.  34  as  "a  doctor  of  the  law,  had  in  honour  of  all 

the  right  result  of  judgement;  in  the  O.T.  it  is  synonymous  with  ccc?2 

1  As  it  is  said  .  .  .:  A  redactor's  addition,  omitted  in  some  MSS. 
"tt2M2«:  (" as  it  is  said")  is  one  of  the  regular  formulas  in  Rabbinical 

writings  for  introducing  quotations  from  the  O.T.    The  quotation  here 
is  from  Zech.  viii.  16. 

l-Il  15 

the  people,"  at  whose  feet  St.  Paul  was  "  instructed  according  to  the 
strict  manner  of  the  law  of  our  fathers"  (Acts  xxii.  3).  The  way  in 
which  he  is  here  spoken  of  fully  accords  with  all  that  is  told  of  him  in 
Rabbinical  literature  ;  he  is  said  to  have  done  more  than  any  other  in 
establishing  and  upholding  the  honour  in  which  the  "house  of  Hillel" 
was  held.  He  was  the  first  to  have  the  honorific  title  "  Kabban  " 
prefixed  to  his  name,  and  was  also,  like  Hillel,  called  ha-ZTiktn. 


RABBI  l  said  :  "  Which  is  the  right  way2  that  a  man  should 
choose  out3  for  himself?  (He  should  choose  out)  all 
that  is  an  honour  to  him  who  does  it,4  and  that  (brings)  5 
him  honour  from  men " ;  and  "  Be  careful  in  (the  ob 
servance  of)  a  precept6  of  minor  importance7  as  with 

1  Rabbi  :  While  every  recognised  teacher  had  the  title  "  Rabbi  " 
prefixed  to  his  name,  "Rabbi"  pure  and  simple,  as  though  a  proper 
name,  was  accorded  to  Judah  ha-Nasi  ("the  Prince").     He  was  also 
called  ha-Kadosh,  "the  holy."     He  was  born  circa  140  A.D.,  and  died 
in  219  or  220.     He  is  celebrated  as  the  chief  redactor  of  the  Mishnah, 
though    since   his   day  further   additions  have   been   made,  as,  e.g., 
the  sayings  in  this  verse. 

2  the  right  way:  TC>  means  also  "straight,"  and  it  is  used  of  a 
believer  who  is  "firm"  in  his  faith  (Midrash   Tchillim  to  Ps.  xi.  7). 
For  the  thought  of  the  "  way "  in   the   sense  of  manner  of  life,   cp. 
Acts  xviii.  26  ;  xix.  9,  23  ;  xxiv.  14  ;  see  also  Matt.  vii.  13,  14. 

:;  choose  out :  -iin  =  eligere. 

4  All  that  is  .  .  .  does  it:   The   "it"  refers    to    "way";  but   the 
phrase  -pi  rrirs1  ("  to  do  a  way")  is  very  unusual.     Isaac  Bar  Shelomoh, 
the  author  of  a  commentary  on  Pirke  AbotJi,  suggests  the  emendation 
^rrirS    uto  his   Maker"   (Taylor);  so,  too,   Rabbi    Israel   of  Toledo 

(Herford).  The  suggestion  is  attractive,  but  it  does  not  altogether  fall 
in  with  the  spirit  of  the  verse.  Moreover,  it  is  not  as  though  the  actual 
phrase  yn  mrr  occurs  ;  and  rre»  is  used  in  a  very  wide  way. 

5  and  that  (brings)  .  .  .:   lit.  "and  honour  to  him  from  men"; 
cp.  Phil.  iv.  8. 

15  precept :  rn^  (mttzvaJt),  the  regular  word  for  "  legal  precept." 

7  of  minor  importance  :  lit.  "light." 

1 6  n 

(one  that  is)  weighty,  for  thou  knowest  not 1  (concerning) 
the  giving  of  rewards  for  precepts  ";  and  "  Reckon  the 
loss  (involved  in  the  fulfilling)  of  a  precept  against  its 
reward,  and  the  advantage2  (gained  by  the  committing) 
of  a  sin  against  its  penalty  "  ;  3  and  "  Keep  in  mind  three 
things,  and  thou  wilt  not  come  into  the  power  of  sin ; 4 
know  what  (there  is) 5  above  thee  :  a  seeing  eye,0  and  a 
hearing  ear,  and  all  thy  works  written  in  a  book."7 

2.  Rabban  Gamliel,8  the  son  of  Rabbi9  Judah  ha-Nasi,  said: 
"  Excellent 10  is  Torah-study  together  with  (some)  worldly 
occupation,11  for  the  labour12  in  both  of  them  causes 

1  for  thou  knowest  not .  .  .:  i.e.  thou  knowest  not  how  great  the 
reward  may  be  for  the  fulfilling  of  any  given  precept  ;  cp.  Matt.  VT.  19. 
-  advantage  :  lit.  ''reward";  the  same  word  in  Hebr.  as  that  just  used. 

3  penalty:  lit.  "loss";  again  the  same  word  in  Hebr.  as  that  just 
used  ;  but  in  both  these  cases  the  sense  is  brought  out  more  clearly 
in  English  by  using  different  words. 

4  Keep  in  mind  ...  of  sin  :  The  same  words  as  in  iii.  i.      into  the 
power  of  sin:  lit.  "into  the  hands  of  sin,"  rni?  n^  ;  for  this  use  cp. 
Ps.  cxli.  9.    . .  .  ne  n*p  ':"y?sS  "  Keep  me  from  the  hands  of  the  snare  .  .  ." 

•>  know  what  (there  is):  In  one  MS.  "what"  is  omitted  in  order 
to  make  clearer  what  the  "  three  things  ';  are,  otherwise  the  words 
"know  what  (there  is)  above  thee"  would  read  like  the  first  of  them  ; 
tli is  certainly  makes  the  text  run  smoother. 

{i  a  seeing  eye.  .  .:  cp.  Ps.  xxxiii.  13-15  ;  xxxiv.  15,  16  (Hebr. 
1 6,  17)  ;  i  Pet.  iii.  12. 

7  written  in  a  book  :  cp.  Mai.  iii.  16  ;  Dan.  vii.  10  ;  Rev.  xx.  12. 

8  Eabban  Gamliel:  i.e.  Gamliel    III.;    see   the   table  on  p.   14; 
scarcely  anything  is  known  of  him  beyond  one  or  two  notices  of  him 
in  the  Tosephta  and  Boraitha. 

<J  the  son  of  Rabbi :  For  the  construction  see  note  5,  p.  9. 
1(1  excellent :  lit.  "  comely." 

11  worldly  occupation:  'lit.  "the  way  of  the  earth"  (p*  -pi);  cp. 
iii.   24.      The  phrase  is  used  in  various  senses  ;  see  Gen.  xix.    31  ; 
Josh,  xxiii.  14  ;  i    Kings  ii.  2  ;  it  also  means  the  way  of  behaviour 
among   one's   fellow-creatures  ;    here,    as   often   elsewhere,  it   means 
worldly  occupation,  whether  with  head  or  hand,  as  opposed  to  strictly 
religious  activity. 

12  the  labour  .  .  .:  i.e.  when  a  man  is  busy  with  these  things  tempta 
tion  keeps  from  him,  and  thoughts  of  sin  do  not  occur. 

I  17 

sin  to  be  forgotten  ;  and  all  Torah (-study)  without 
(worldly)  labour  ends  in  failure,1  and  brings  sin  (in  its 
train).  And  let  all  who  labour-  with  the  congregation3 
labour  with  them4  for  the  Name  of  Heaven;5  for  the 
merit  of  their  fathers  6  sustains  them,  and  their  righteous 
ness7  stands  for  ever.  And  (as  for)  you,8  I  will  reckon9 
unto  you  reward  10  as  though  ye  had  done  it." 

3.11  "  Be  ye  cautious  regarding  those  in  authority,  for  they  permit 
not  n  man  to  draw  nigh  unto  them  but  for  their  own 
purpose.  They  appear  to  be  friends  when  it  suits  them,, 
but  do  not  help  a  man  in  time  of  his  need." 

1  ends  in  failure:  lit.  "its  end  is  in  failure/'     Contrast  with  the 
teaching  given  in  this  verse  Hen-Sira's  ideas  on  the  subject  ;  he  sees 
the  need  of  the  craftsman  and  the  labourer,  but  considers  their  lot  an 
unhappy  one  as  compared  with  him  who  can  give  his  whole  time  to 
the  study  of  the  Law  ;  see  Sir.  xxxviii.  24-xxxix.  11. 

2  labour :  boy  is  often  used  of  labouring  at  the  study  of  the  Law ;  here, 
however,  it  refers  to  the  carrying-out  of  the  affairs  of  the  Synagogue 
congregation,  such  as  the  administration  of  charily,  etc. 

:!  the  congregation:  -nrj  (zibbur\  lit.  "a  heap";  in  later  usage  the 

technical  term  for  the  Synagogue  congregation. 

4  with  them  :  The  plur.   refers    to    the   members    of  the    congre 

5  for  the  Name  of  Heaven  :  It  is  an  exhortation  to  disinterested 
work  ;  cp.  Rom.  xv.  7  :  "...  to  the  glory  of  Gocl.;' 

(i  the  merit  of  their  fathers  :  The  doctrine  of  Zecuth  A  both 
("  Merit  of  the  Fathers'')  plays  an  important  part  in  Jewish  theology  ; 
it  is  often  emphasised  in  the  Targums  as  well  as  in  the  later  literature ; 
cp.  Rom.  xi.  28  :  "  they  are  beloved  for  the  father's  sake."  The 
efficacy  of  this  merit  acts  upon  later  generations;  see  the  last  sentence 
of  this  verse.  See  further  Weber,  pp.  292-297. 

7  their  righteousness  :  i.e.  that  of  the  fathers. 

x  (as  for)  you  :  i.e.  "all  who  labour  for  the  congregation." 

<J  I  will  reckon  .  .  .:  The  words  are  put  into  the  mouth  of  God  ; 
for  the  thought  cp.  Rom.  iv.  3  :  "...  it  was  reckoned  unto  him  for 

10  reward:  Some  MSS.  add  "plenteous." 

11  With  this  verse  cp.  Ps.  cxlvi.  3  :  "  Put  not  your  trust  in  princes, 
nor  in  any  son  of  man,  in  whom  is  no  help." 


18  ii 

4.  He  used1  to  say  :   "  Do  His  will2  as  (if  it  were)  thy  will,  that 

He  may  do  thy  will  as  (if  it  were)  His  will.  Annihilate3 
thy  will  before  His  will,  that  He  may  annihilate  the  will 
of  others  4  before  thy  will." 

5.  Hillel 5  said  :   "  Separate  thyself  not 6  from  the  congregation, 

and  trust  not  thyself7  until  the  day  of  thy  death  "  ;  and 
"Judge  not8  thy  neighbour  until  thou  comest  into  his 
place " ;  and  "  Say  not  (that)  a  thing  which  cannot  be 
understood  9  (at  first)  will  be  understood  (eventually) " ; 

1  He  used  .  .  .  :  i.e.  Rabban  Gamliel  III. 

2  His   will :   i.e.    God's    will.      With  the  general   thought   of  the 
sentence  cp.  Matt.  xii.  50  ;  John  vii.  7. 

3  annihilate  :  The  root  ban  means  lit.  "  to  be  hollow,"  "  void." 

4  the  will  of  others  :  i.e.  of  adversaries. 

5  Hillel :  In  all  probability  the  great  Hillel  is  meant  (i.  12),  as  with 
verse  5  the  sequence  is  taken  up  again  which  was  broken    by  the 
insertion  of  i.  lo-ii   4. 

0  Separate  thyself  not .  .  .:  An  exhortation  similar  to  that  which 
occurs  in  Hebr.  x.  25:  "not  forsaking  the  assembling  of  ourselves 
together,  as  the  custom  of  some  is."  Evidence  is  not  wanting,  however, 
of  the  existence  of  unorthodox  gatherings. 

7  trust  not  thyself.  .  .:  lit.  "believe  not  in  thyself";  man  requires 
the  help  that  is  afforded  by  the  sense  of  corporate  unity  ;  cp.  i  Cor. 
ix.  27  ;  x.  12.     According  to  Jewish  teaching,  death  effected  an  atone 
ment  for  all  sin  ;  cp.  the  words  in  the  Jewish  Liturgy  at  the  "Confession 
on  a  Death-bed"  :  "  O  may  my  death  be  an  atonement  for  all  my  sins, 
iniquities,  and  transgressions  of  which   I   have  been    guilty  against 

8  Judge  not  .  .  .:  i.e.  until  thou  art  placed  in  a  similar  temptation  ; 
cp.  Matt.  vii.  1-5. 

9  which  cannot  be  understood:  lit.  "which  cannot  be  heard"; 
the  saying  is  ambiguous,  but  the  meaning  probably  is  that  when  a 
teacher  puts  forth  some  dictum  he  should  not  put  it  in  an  enigmatical 
form  and  then  say  that,  although  it  cannot  be  understood  at  once,  its 
meaning  will  become  clear  later  when  fully  pondered  ;  in  other  words, 
a  teacher  should  make  his  teaching  clear  from  the  outset.     The  warn 
ing  was  thoroughly  a  propos  when  one  remembers  the  paradoxical 
form  of  so  many  Rabbinical  utterances.     There  is  a  variant  reading 
which    omits    the  negative,  viz.   "  which  can    be    understood " ;    but 
there   is   little   doubt   about   the   reading   adopted   above  being   the 
correct  o;ne. 

II  T9 

and  "Say  not,  'When  I  have  leisure1  I  will  study';2  it 
may  bc%  that  thou  wilt  have  no  leisure.'' 

6.  He   used   to   say :   "  An    empty-headed  3  man   fears  not  sin  ; 

nor  is  a  '  vulgar  person  '  pious  ; 4  nor  can  a  shy  man 
learn  ; 5  nor  can  a  passionate  man  teach  ; 6  nor  can  he 
who  is  much7  occupied  in  business  become  wise";  and 
"  Wheresoever  s  there  are  no  men  strive  to  be  a  man." 

7.  Moreover,9    he  saw  a  skull10  floating11   on  the  face  of  the 

1  When  I  have  leisure  :  Note  the  heaping-up  of  particles  (rtyswt^j} ; 
the  verb  n:c:  means  lit.  "to  turn  oneself  away,"  viz.  from  other  occupa 

-  I  will  study  :  The  root  n:s?  means  lit.  "  to  repeat  ";  by  repeating 
a  thing  one  learns  it  ;  and  so  the  word  came  to  mean  "to  learn"  as 
well  as  "to  teach,"  specifically  in  regard  to  the  Law.  "  Mishnah"  comes 
from  the  same  root. 

3  empty-headed :    "boorish,"  "uncultivated";    the   root  TQ  means 
'•  to  be  empty." 

4  nor  is  a'' 'vulgar  person"  pious  :  ywrrcr  (l(im  ha-aretz)  and  Trn 
(Chasid]  are  both  technical  terms  in  Rabbinical  literature;  the  former, 
used  both  collectively  and  individually,  means  lit.  "people  of  the  land," 
and  is  usually  held  to  mean  "unlearned  in  the  Law"  (see,  however, 
the  present  writer's   The  Books  of  the  Apocrypha,  p.  92  f.,  where  both 
these  terms  are  discussed)  ;  cp.  John  vii.  49.     The  Chtisidim  are  the 
"pious  ones,"  or  "  saints"  as  they  are  called  in  the  Psalms. 

5  nor  can  a  shy  man  learn:  lit.  "does";  because  he  is  afraid  to 
ask  questions  of  his  teacher;  the  word  for  "shy"  or  "bashful"  (prra,  from 

the  root  «ra)   is  generally  used  in  a  good  sense,  "chaste,"  e.g.  T.B. 
Nedarim  20  a  \  "  Lt   is  a  favourable  indication   in  a  man  that  he   is 
bashful"  (Jastrow,  S.T.). 
"  nor  can  a  passionate  man  .  .  .:  because  he  is  lacking  in  patience. 

7  nor  can  he  who  is  much  .  .  .:  lit.  "  nor  he  that  multiplies  .  .  ."; 
see  the  note  on  ii.  2  and  the  reference  to  Sir.  there  given. 

8  Wheresoever :  lit.  "  in  the  place  where." 

0  Moreover  .  .  . :  The  saying  in  this  verse,  which  is  partly  in 
Aramaic,  is  found  after  another  saying  of  Hillel's  in  T.B.  Sukka  ^a 

10  skull :  Hebr.  rv^  (gulgoleth]  ;  cp.  Matt,  xxvii.  33  ;  lit.  something- 
folded  or  rolled  up  (cp.  John  xx.  7);  the  place-name  Gilgal  (=a  circle 
of  stones)  comes  from  the  same  root.     The  word  could  also  be  trans 
lated  "  head." 

11  floating:  lit.  "swimming." 

c  2 

20  11 

waters,  and  lie  said  unto  it :  "  Because  they  drowned 
thee  thou  art  drowned,  but  they  that  drowned  thee  shall 
(themselves)  be  drowned  at  the  last."  ] 

8.  He   used   to   say  :  "  The   more 2  flesh  the  more  worms,8  the 

more  treasures  the  more  care,  the  more  maidservants  the 
more  lewdness,  the  more  manservants  the  more  theft, 
the  more  women  the  more  witchcrafts,4  the  more  Torah 
the  more  life,5  the  more  wisdom  the  more  academies 
of  learning,6  the  more  righteousness 7  the  more  peace." 
"He  who  hath  gained  a  good  name8  hath  gained  (some 
thing)  for  himself/'  "  He  wrho  hath  gained  words  of 
Torah  for  himself  hath  gained  for  himself  life  in  the 
world  to  come/'9 

9.  Rabban  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai 10  received  (the  Law)  from  Hillel 

1  Because  .  .  .:  This  is  not  a  direct  translation,  but  presumably 
represents  what  the  original  intends  ;  lit.  it  runs  :  "  Because  thou  art 
drowned  they  drowned  thee  .  .  ."  The  saying  expresses  the  idea  of 
retributive  justice :  cp.  Sota  i.  7  :  "With  the  measure  wherewith  a  man 
measures  shall  he  be  measured"  (Strack),  and  see  Matt.  vii.  2  ; 
xviii.  23-35. 

-  The  more:  lit.  "He  that  increaseth";  and  so  each  time  in  this  verse. 

3  worms  :  cp.  iv.  4  :  "  The  expectation  of  man  is  worms/'' 

4  ...  the  more  witchcrafts  :  The  same  is  said  in  T.B.  Sanhcdrin 
67  a  (Hoffmann). 

5  life:  i.e.  eternal  life;  cp.  the  words  from  the  Midrash  Sifre  84^ 
already  quoted  in  the  notes  to  i.  4. 

(1  academies  of  learning:  "Yeshibah,"  lit.  "sitting,"  one  of  the 
technical  terms  for  a  place  where  the  pursuit  of  wisdom  is  fostered  ; 
cp.  Sir.  li.  29  (Hebr.). 

7  righteousness:  njrj?  in  neo-Hebr.  =  "almsgiving";  cp.  Is.  xxxii.  17; 

Matt.  vi.  1-4.  In  three  MSS.  "the  more  righteousness  the  more 
peace"  is  preceded  by  "the  more  counsel  the  more  discernment." 

8  a  good  name  :  cp.  Kccles.  vii.  i  ;  Sir.  xli.  11-13  (Hebr.),  esp.  the 
last  verse. 

!)  the  world  to    come  :    «an  cViyn  (ha-^Ohim  lia-ba}  in  contrast  to 

rnn  cVirn  (ha-1 0  lam  ha-zeh\  "this  world"    or  "age";  cp.   Eph.   i.  2: 

(6  alow  ovrof,  and  6  alw  6  ^e'AXooi');  Mark  x.  30;  Luke  xviii.  30.  Notice 
again  the  emphasis  laid  on  the  connexion  between  the  Law  and  eternal 

10  R.  Jochanan  b.  Zakkai :  Like  Zo^aicr,  abbrev.  from  Zechariah ; 
he  worked  during  the  last  quarter  of  the  first  century  A.D.,  especially 

II  21 

and  from  Shammai.1  He  used  to  say :  "  If  thou  hast 
practised  much  Torah  '2  claim  not  merit  for  thyself,3  since 
for  this  purpose  thou  wast  created." 

to.  Rabban  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai  had  five  pupils,4  and  these5 
were  they :  Rabbi  Eliezer  ben  Hyrcanos,6  and  Rabbi 
Joshua  ben  Chananiah,7  and  Rabbi  Jose  the  priest,8 

in  Jabneh  (Jamnia),  where  he  founded  an  academy  soon  after  the  fall 
of  Jerusalem.  Here  he  gathered  together  the  remnants  of  Israel's 
teachers  who  continued  the  study  of  the  Law,  so  that  had  it  not  been 
for  his  action  it  is  probable  that  Judaism  would  have  sunk  in  oblivion. 
As  a  contemporary  both  of  Christ  and  St.  Paul  he  is  a  man  of  con 
siderable  interest.  He  was  famed  for  his  great  piety  and  his  rigid 
adherence  to  the  precepts  of  the  Law. 

1  from  Hillel  and  from  Shammai :  cj>.  i.  12  and  ii.  4. 

-  practised  much  Torah :  This  is  the  best  reading,  although  the 
verb  rroy  is  not  used  with  Torah  as  a  rule  (either  with  "the  things 
of  the  Law,"  or  with  mitsvah,  "commandment"),  but  c/>.  Josh.  xxii.  5  ; 
Neh.  ix.  34  (Strack)  ;  Sir.  xix.  20.  Other  readings  are  "n  rrrcr, 
"  learned  much  Torah,"  and  ravj:  rrfcr,  "  practised  much  good."  Both 
these  may  be  rejected. 

3  claim  not  merit  for  thyself:  lit.  "grasp  not  good  for  thyself." 
For  the  general    teaching  of   the  words,  cp.    Matt.  xix.  27    and  the 
parable  of  the  labourers  in  the  vineyard,  x\.    1-16  ;    Luke  xvii.   10  ; 
i  Cor.  iv.  7  ;  ix.  16. 

4  Rabban  Jochanan  .  .  .:    lit.   "  Five  pupils   there   were   to  him  to 
Rabban  . .  ."    This  reduplication  "to  him"  (ft)  is  omitted  by  two  MSS., 
but  the  construction  occurs  elsewhere,  e.g.  in  verse  3. 

:>  these  :  The  form  here  is  VTN,  also  written  V 

it  is  also,  though  rarely,  used  interrogatively,  "which  ?"  R.  Jochanan 
had,  of  course,  many  more  than  five  pupils,  but  those  here  mentioned 
were  the  most  prominent. 

0  R.  Eliezer  b.  H.  :  Died  at  the  beginning  of  the  second  century; 
one  of  the  most  prominent  of  the  later  teachers,  but,  narrow  and 
obstinate,  he  held  strongly  to  the  rigid  observance  of  the  traditional 
Law,  of  which  his  knowledge  was  immense;  see  T.B.  Sanhedrin  6Sd 

7  R.  Joshua  b.  C. :  Together  with    R.  Eliexer,  the  most  celebrated 
of  Jochanan's  pupils  ;  he  died  soon  after  130  .4.1).:  a  Levite,  of  gentle 
disposition,  of  whom  it  is  said  that  when  he  died  there  was  no  more 
gentle-heartedness  in  the  world  ;  Mishnah,  So/a  ix.  15  (Schiirer). 

8  R.   Jose  the  priest :  An  example  of  one    of  the  priestly  party 
belonging  to  the  Pharisees  ;  as  a  rule  there  was  antagonism  between 
the  aristocratic  priesthood  and  the  Pharisees. 

22  II 

and  Rabbi  Simeon  ben  Nathanael,1  and  Rabbi  Eleazar 
ben  Arak.2  He  used  to  recount  their  praise 8  (thus)  : 
"Eliezer  ben  Hyrcanos4  is  a  plastered  cistern5  which 
loseth  not  a  drop.  Joshua'  ben  Chananiah— blessed  is 
she6  who  bore  him!  Jose  the  priest  is  a  Chasid.7 
Simeon  ben  Nathanael  is  one  that  feareth  sin.  Eleazar 
ben  Arak  is  an  ever-welling  spring."  8 

ii.  He  used  to  say:  "If  all  the  wise  men  of  Israel  were  in  the 
scale  of  a  balance,  and  Eliezer  ben  Hyrcanos  in  the  other 
scale,  he  would  weigh  9  them  all  down." 

10  [Abba  Shaul  said  in  his  name  :  n   "  If  all  the  wise 

1  R.  Simeon  b.  N.:  Nothing  is  known  of  him  save  what  is  mentioned 
below,  verses  12,  17. 

2  R.  Eleazar  b.  A.:  From  all  accounts  a  man. of  great  learning  ;  in 
the  Jer.  Talm.  Chagigah  ii.  77  #,  it  is  said  :  "Happy  art  thou,  O  father 
Abraham,  from  whose  loins  sprang  Eleazar  ben  Arak  "  (quoted  by 
Mendelsohn  mJE  v.  97 ^)- 

3  praise :  The  word  (mti)  means  also  "  superiority,"  and  probably 

this  idea  underlies  the  use  of  it  here,  since  these  five  were  the  out 
standing  among  Jochanan's  pupils. 

4  Eliezer  b.  H.  :    Two  MSS.  insert  "Rabbi";    but  in  view  of  its 
absence  before  the  other  names  it  should  evidently  be  omitted  here. 

5  a  plastered  cistern:  lit.  "a  cistern  of  lime";  the  same  word  was 
used  of  the  plaster,  a!most  as  white  as  snow,  of  the  Temple  walls 
( Jastrow). 

6  blessed  is  she  .  .  .:  As  in  Ps.  i.  i,  nw ;  cp.  Luke  xi.  27. 

7  Chasid  :  See  note  on  verse  6. 

8  an  ever-welling  spring:  The  form  of  the  word  (hithp.)  gives  the 
idea  of  continuously  growing  force.     In  Prov.  xviii   4  it  is  said  :  "The 
wellspring  of  wisdom  is  a  flowing  brook." 

9  he  would  weigh  :   cp.  vi.  6  ;  the  word  is  also  used  of  good  deeds 
overbalancing  evil  ones. 

10  Abba  Shaul .  .  .  them  all  down  :  This  sentence,  which  purports 
to  be  an  expression  of  opinion  differing  from  that  of  Jochanan,  is  a 
later  insertion.     It  is,  however,  possible  that  it  is  a  correction  of  the 
preceding  sentence  which  had  been  erroneously  handed  down  ;  for  in 
AN xxix.  this  passage  runs  :  "Abba  Shaul  said  in  the  name  of  Rabbi 
Akiba,  who  said  it  in  the  name  of  R.  Jochanan  .  .  ." ;  a  reference  to 
what  R.  Jochanan  says  about  Eleazar  ben  Arak  in  verses  12,  13  points 
to  this  latter  having  been  considered  the  greatest  of  his  pupils. 

11  in  his  name  :  The  usual  formula  whereby  a  pupil  hands  down  the 


men  of  Israel  were  in  the  scale  of  a  balance, 
and  Eliezer  ben  Hyrcanos  with  them  too,1 
and  Eleazar  ben  Arak  in  the  other  scale,  he 
would  weigh  them  all  down."] 

He  said  -  unto  them  :  3  "  Behold,  now,4  which  is  the  good 
way  to  which  a  man  should  cleave  ?  "  Rabbi  Eliezer 
said:  "A  good  eye."5  Rabbi  Joshua  said:  "A  good 
companion."6  Rabbi  Jose  said  :  "  A  good  neighbour."  7 
Rabbi  Simeon  said  :  "  He  that  seeth  8  that  which  shall 
be."  9  Rabbi  Eleazar  said  :  "  A  good  heart."  10  (Then) 
said  he  unto  them  :  "To  me  it  appears11  that  the  words 
of  Eleazar  ben  Arak  are  better  than  your  words,  for  his 
words  include12  your  words." 

utterance  of  a  teacher  ;  see  the  words  at  the  end  of  vi.  6  :  "who  utters 
a  saying  in  the  name  of  him  who  said  it  .  .  ." 

1  and  Eliezer  .  .  .  too  :  These  words  are  probably  a  gloss  added 
by  the  redactor  of  the  Mishnah  (Hoffmann). 

2  He  said  :  i.e.  R.  Jochanan. 

3  unto  them  :  i.e.  his  five  chief  pupils. 

4  Behold,  now :  lit.  "Go  and  see,"  a  formula  for  arousing  attention. 

5  A  good  eye  :  cp.  v.  9  ;  Prov.  xxii.  9  ;  Matt.  vi.  22,   23.     For  the 
converse,  "an  evil  eye"  of  a  grudging,  envious  man,  see  Sir.  xiv.  8-10; 
cp.  Mark  vii.  22.     The  replies  given  are  in  each  case  very  pregnant, 
and  words  have  to  be  supplied  mentally;  e.g.  A  good  eye  is  the  best 
means  whereby  a  man  is  able  to  continue  in  the  good  way. 

0  companion  :  chaber  ;  see  note  on  i.  6. 

7  neighbour  :  This   refers    to   the    companion    with   whom    a  man 
associates    when  among   his  fellow-creatures   generally  ;    the   chaber 
refers  to  the  companion  in  Torah-study. 

8  He  that  seeth  .  .  .:  i.e.  a  man  of  foresight  and  experience  ;  these 
things  enable  him  to  keep  in  the  good  way. 

9  that  which  shall  be  :  iVi:n,  lit.  "that  shall  be  born";  cp.  Ps. xxii. 32 

10  A  good  heart :    The  heart,  being  regarded  as   the   seat  of  the 
understanding^.  O.T.  usage)  as  well  as  \.\\tfons  et  origo  of  all  action, 
is,  if  "good,"  rightly  looked  upon  by  R.  Jochanan  as  the  most  im 
portant  means  whereby  a  man  can  cleave  to  the  right  way. 

11  To  me  it  appears  :  lit.  "  I  (emphatic)  see." 

12  for  his  words  include  .  .  .:  This  is  a  paraphrase;  it  is  impossible 
here  to  render  the  Hebrew  otherwise  than  by  paraphrase. 

24  ii 

13.  He  said  unto  them:   "Behold,  now,1  which  is  the  evil  way 

from  which  a  man  should  keep  himself?"  Rabbi  Eliezer 
said:  "An  evil  eye."2  Rabbi  Joshua  said:  "An  evil 
companion."  Rabbi  Jose  said:  "An  evil  neighbour." 
Rabbi  Simeon  said  :  "  He  that  borroweth,  and  repayeth 

3  [One  that  borroweth  from  man  is  as  he  that 
borroweth  from  God 4 — Blessed  be  He  ! — since 
it  is  said  :  "The  wicked  borroweth,  and  payeth 
not  again,  but  the  righteous  is  merciful  and 

Rabbi  Eleazar  said:  "An  evil  heart."  (Then)  said  he 
unto  them:  "To  me  it  appears5  that  the  words  of 
Eleazar  ben  Arak  are  better  than  your  words,  for  his 
words  include  your  words." 

14.  They   said6    three    things.       Rabbi    Eliezer  said:   "Let   the 

honour7  of  thy  associate  be  dear  to  thee  as  thine  own"  : 
and  "  Be  not  easily s  provoked,  and  repent  one  day  ° 

1  Behold,  now  :  See  note  on  preceding  verse. 

-  An  evil  eye  :  See  note  on  preceding  verse,  and  cp.  Prov.  xxiii.  6  : 
xxviii.  22  ;  Matt.  xx.  15  ;  Mark  vii.  21,  22. 

3  [One  that  borroweth  .  .  .]  :  This  is  clearly  a  later  addition  ;  the 
quotation  is  from  Ps.  xxxvii.  21. 

4  God:  In  the  Hebrew  Makom,  lit.  "Place";  cp.  iii.  3,  10,  14;  vi.  i  ; 
this  substitute  for  the  name  of  God,  which  is  often  found  in  Rabbinical 
literature,  is  used  for  reverential  reasons  by  avoiding  the  direct  use 
of  the  name  of  God  ;  and  also  in  order  to  express  the  truth  of  the 
divine  ubiquity  ;  God  is  the  "  space  "  or  "place  "  of  the  world  ;  being 
infinite,  He  embraces  the  universe,  but  the  universe  cannot  contain 
Him.     In  the  Midrash  Bereshith  Rabba  is  said:  "  Why  do 
they  call  the  Holy  One— Blessed  be  He  \-Makom  ?     Because  He  is 
the  place  of  the  world,  and    His  world  is  not  His  place."     cp.  Acts 
xvii.  28  ;   i  Cor.  xv.  28  ;  Eph.  iv.  6,  10. 

1  To  me  it  appears  .  .  .:  See  notes  on  preceding  verse. 

l!  They  said  .  .  .:  i.e.  each  of  the  five  disciples 

7  Let  the  honour  .  .  .:  cp.  iv.  12. 

s  Be  not  easily  .  .  .:  cp.  \  Cor.  xiii.  5. 

'•'  repent  one  day  .  .  .:  i.e.  to-day,  for  death  may  come  any  day  ; 
this  is  how  R.  Eliezer  explains  the  words  in  T,B.  Shabbath  153"^ 

II  25 

before  thy  death";  and  "Warm  thyself1  before  the  fire 
of  the  wise,  but  beware  of  their  embers,  lest  thou  be 
burned ;  for  their  bite  is  the  bite  of  a  fox,  their  sting 
the  sting  of  a  scorpion,  their  hiss  the  hiss  of  a  serpent ; 
and  all  their  words  are  like  coals  of  fire."  2 

15.  Rabbi  Joshua  said: 3  "An  evil  eye,4  and  the  evil  tendency,5 

and  hatred  of  mankind,6  drive  a  man "  out  of  the  world." 

1 6.  Rabbi  Jose  said:   "Let  the  wealth8  of  thy   companion   be 

dear  to  thee  as  thine  own  "  ;  "Set  thyself  to  learn  Torah, 

1  Warm  thyself.  .  .:  The  general  meaning  of  this  saying  is  pro 
bably  as  follows  :  Let  a  man  draw  near  to  those  learned  in  the  Law 
in  order  that  he  may  become  conversant  with  it  ;  but  let  him  bear  in 
mind  the  result,  for  increased  knowledge  of  the  Law  means  increased 
responsibility  (cp.  Rom.  vii.  7ff.),  and  if  that  increased  responsibility 
is  not  lived  up  to  a  man  will  suffer  for  it.     The  expressions  "bite  of  a 
fox,"  etc.,  are,  in  all  probability,  pictorial    phrases  denoting  degrees 
of  punishment  from  those  in  authority  for  transgressions  of  the  Law. 

2  their  words  .  .  .  fire  :  cp.  Jer.  v.  14. 

:;  R.  Joshua  said  :  Here  the  three  sayings  are  compressed  into  one. 

4  An  evil  eye  :  See  note  on  verse  12. 

•'  the  evil  tendency:  Yetgerfa-ra'=*\usti  the  word  Yetzer  comes 
from  the  root  -i^,  "to  form"  or  "frame";  hence  the  word  connotes  what 
is  formed  or  conceived  in  the  mind,  "  purpose  "  or  "intention."  In 
the  O.T.  it  is  used  in  both  a  good  sense  (Is.  xxvi.  3 ;  i  Chron.  xxix.  18) 
and  a  bad  one  (Gen.  vi.  5  ;  viii.  21).  It  was  later  that  the  idea  of  the 
Yetser  being  essentially  evil  arose,  the  evil  nature  or  tendency 
(Yelser  Jia-ra1")  ;  cp.  Sir.  xv.  14  ;  xvii.  31  ;  xxi.  11  ;  xxxvii.  3  ;  see  also 
Mark  vii.  21  ;  still  later  there  grew  up  the  doctrine  of  a  good  tendency 
( Yetzer  ha-tob}  opposed  to  the  evil  one  (cp.  Rom.  vii.  22,  23) ;  one  sees 
the  beginning  of  this  already  in  Sir.  xxxiii.  14,  15.  See  further  Weber, 
pp.  21 5<f. 

0  hatred  of  mankind:  See  note  on  i.  12  ;  and  with  the  thought 
cp.  i  John  iii.  15. 

1  drive  a  man  .  .  .:  cp.  Sir.  xxx.  24  ;  the  reference  is  to  this  world, 
though    some   commentators    hold    that    the    world    to  come   is   also 

8  wealth:  j'lop  ( fj.a fj./jL(o^iis)  ;  cp.   Matt.  vi.   24;  Luke  xvi.  11,   12;  in 

Rabbinical  literature  this  word  is  used  in  the  general  sense  of  posses 
sions,  whether  of  money,  cattle,  or  other  property. 

26  ii 

for  them  dost  not  inherit  it "  ; 1  and  "  Let  all  thy  works 
be  done  in  the  name  of  Heaven."  * 

17.  Rabbi  Simeon  said  :  "Be  careful  in  reading  the  Shewa'*  and 
in  (offering)  prayer " ;  and  "  When  thou  prayest  make 
not  thy  prayer  a  mechanical  formality,4  but  (let  it  be) 
an  entreaty 5  before  God  "  ; 6 

6  [Blessed  be  He  !— as  it  is  said  :  "For  He  is  gracious 
and  compassionate,  slow  to  anger,  and  plenteous 
in  mercy."] 
and  "  Be  not  wicked7  in  thine  own  eyes." 

1  thou  dost  not  .  .  .:  lit.  "it  is  not  an  inheritance  unto  thee,"  i.e. 
each  man  has  to  acquire  the  knowledge  of  it  by  his  own  effort  ;  though 
in  another  sense  it  is  the  inheritance  of  every  Israelite  ;  cp.  Deut. 
xxxiii.    4 :    "  Moses    commanded   as   a  law,    an    inheritance    for   the 
assembly  of  Jacob." 

2  Let  all  thy  works  .  .  .:  cp.  i  Cor.  x.  31  ;  Col.  iii.  17. 

3  the  Shema* :  This  is  the  name  given  to  the  combination  of  the 
three  passages,  Deut.  vi.  4-9  ;  xi.   13-21  ;    Num.  xv.  37-41,  which  is 
recited  by  every  orthodox   Jew   twice  daily  (morning  and  evening). 
The  name  S/iema1  ("Hear")  is  given  from  the  opening  word.     It 
occupies   almost  the  position  of  a  Creed,  as  the  dominant  idea  in 
reciting  it  is  to  assert  the  divine  unity:  "Hear,  O  Israel,  the  Lord  our 
God,  the  Lord  is  One."     In  the  Jewish  Liturgy,  of  which  the  Shemai 
has  formed  a  part  from  pre-Christian  times,  this  opening  passage  is 
separated  from  the  rest  by  the  interjection  of  the  words  :  "  Blessed 
be  His  name,  whose  glorious  kingdom  is  for  ever   and   ever."      cp. 
Mark  xii.  29  ;  see  further  Weber,  pp.  41  ff.,  85  ft. 

4  a  mechanical  formality  :  ^  means  something  fixed  or  perma 
nent,  as  in  i.  15,  but  it  is  also  used  in  the  sense  of  a  perfunctory  act  ; 
cp.  Matt.  vi.  si  xxiii.  14.     In  Berakhoth  iv.  4,  e.g.,  reference  is  made 
to  one  who  treats  prayer  as  a  perfunctory  obligation,  in  which  case 
prayer  is  not  a  means  of  grace  (Jastrow). 

5  entreaty:  plur.  in  the  original;  two  MSS.  have  "mercies  and 

6  God  :  Makom  ;  see  note  on  verse  13.     Two  MSS.  add  "  Blessed 
be  He,"  a  later  addition;  the  quotation  (Joel  ii.    13)  is  also  a  later 

7  Be  not  wicked  .  ,  .:  />.  Be  not   guilty  of  wilful,  deliberate  sin  ; 
cp.  Sir,  vii,  16, 

II  27 

iS.  Rabbi  Eleazar  said:  "Be  intent  upon1  learning  how  to 
answer  an  Epicurean";2  and  "Know  before  whom3 
thou  toilest " ;  and  "(Know)  who  is  master  of  thy 

4  [who  will  pay  thee  the  hire  for  thy  labour.] 

19.  Rabbi   Tarphon 5   said:    "The  day  is -short,6  and   the   work 

is  great,   and    the   labourers   are  sluggish,   and   the  hire 
is  abundant,7  and  the  master8  of  the  house  is  urgent." 

20.  He  said  (further):  ''Thou  canst  not  finish  the  work,  nor  art 

thou  free  to  desist  therefrom."9     "  If  thou  hast  learned 

1  Be  intent  upon  .  .  .  :  This  probably  represents  the  best  reading, 
but  the  MSS.  vary,  viz.  "  lie  intent  upon  learning  the  Torah  (in  order) 
to  answer  .  .  .'';  "  Be  intent  .  .  .  the  Torah  in  order  that  thou  mayest 
know  how  to  answer..."  The  word  rendered  "be  intent"  (ipf) 
means  to  concentrate  all  one's  efforts  upon  something. 

-  an  Epicurean  :  In  the  early  Rabbinical  literature  this  is  used  of 
an  unbeliever  or  a  heretic,  and  especially  of  one  who  does  not  believe 
in  life  after  death  or  in  an  overseeing  Providence;  cp.  Josephus,  Antiq. 
X.  xi.  7.  In  the  later  literature  the  term  is  used  in  a  wider  sense 
of  one  who  despises  the  Rabbis,  or  of  one  who  does  not  believe  in  the 
divine  origin  of  the  Torah.  See  further  G.  Deutsch  \\\JE\.  665^. 
With  the  saying  cp.  i  Pet.  iii.  15. 

'•'  before  whom :  i.e.  God  ;  cp.  Rom.  iv.  4. 

1  The  words  in  square  brackets  are  found  in  two  MSS.;  they  are  a 
later  gloss. 

;>  Rabbi  Tarphon  :  Died  early  in  the  second  century  ;  he  had  been 
a  priest  of  the  Temple  in  his  youth  ;  he  is  spoken  of  as  being  strongly 
opposed  to  Jewish-Christians  (T.B.  Shabbath  n6cz;  see  Bacher, 
Agada  der  Tannaiten,  pp.  348  ff.). 

0  The  day  is  short :  i.e.  the  span  of  life  on  earth  ;  cp.  John  ix.  4  : 
"We  must  work  the  works  of  Him  that  sent  Me  while  it  is  day  ;  the 
night  comefh  when  no  man  can  work." 

7  the  hire  is  abundant :  Omitted  by  two  MSS. 

8  the  master  .  .  .:  i.e.  God;  with  the  saying  generally,  cp.  Matt.  ix. 
37  ;  xx.  i  ff. 

8  Thou  canst  not  .  .  .:  lit.  "  It  is  not  upon  thee  .  .  .";  three  MSS. 
read  "all  the  work."  nor  art  thou  free:  pirqa  nrjM  *fy  ;  in  Bibl. 
Hebr.  tnin  means  "noblemen"  (i  Kings  xxi.  8,  etc.),  hence  one  who 
is  a  free-man  ;  later  the  meaning  was  extended,  as  in  this  saying. 

28  11-111 

much  Torah,  they  give  thee1  much  reward  ;  and  faithful 
is  He  who  is  Master  of  thy  work,2  who  will  recompense 
thee  the  reward  of  thy  work ;  and  be  thou  assured 3 
that  the  gift  of  recompense4  of  the  righteous  is  for  the 
time  to  come."5 


i.  (i)  AKABIAH  BEN  MAHALALEKL  6  said:  ''Keep  in  mind  three 
things,  and  thou  wilt  not  come  into  the  power  of  sin  : 7 
Know  whence  thou  earnest,  and  whither  thou  art  going, 

According  to  the  later  usage  the  word  is  usually  connected  with  p 
("son  of");  cp.  Eccles.  x.  17  cnvrp,  "a  free-man"  (lit.  "a  son  of 
nobles  ").  therefrom  :  Omitted  by  most  of  the  MSS. 

1  they  give  thee :  i.e.  God  (cp.  the  rest  of  the  saying)  ;  this  sub 
stitute  for  the  name  of  God  (cp.  the  use  of  "  Heaven,"  always  in  the 
plur.  in  Hebr.)  is  frequent  in  Rabbinical  literature  ;  cp.  iii.  5  ;  an 
instance  of  it  in  the  N.T.  is  Luke  xvi.  9  :  "...  that  when  it  shall  fail, 
they  may  receive  you  into  the  eternal  tabernacles."  Another  use  of  the 
3rd  pers.  plur.  in  Rabbinical  literature  is  that  which  is  equivalent  to 
""one";  the  context  usually  makes  it  clear  which  of  the  two  meanings 

-  Master  of  thy  work  :  i.e.  He  for  whom  the  work  is  done. 

:;  be  thou  assured  :  lit.  "know." 

4  the  gift  of  recompense  :  Note  the  doctrine  of  grace  here  implied 
see  Weber,  pp.  313  ff.,  330  ff.)  ;  one  should  contrast  this  with  the 
frequent  insistence  upon  the  efficacy  of  works  in  Rabbinical  literature  ; 
cp.  Rom.  iv.  2  ;  Gal.  ii.  16  ;  Eph.  ii.  8-10. 

:>  for  the  time  to  come  :  «ir  Trip  does  not  necessarily  refer  to  the 

Hereafter  (siin  ^ir)  ;  it  refers  to  the  indefinite  future,  and  may,  of 

course,  include  the  future  life. 

G  Akabiah  b.  M.  :  The  absence  of  the  title  Rabbi  points  to  an  early- 
date  ;  the  time  of  his  activity  cannot  be  stated  with  certainty,  but  it 
was  probably  during  the  middle  or  latter  half  of  the  first  century  A.D. 
(see  Strack,  Einleitung  271  den  Talmud,  p.  85  [4th  ed.],  with  the  reft". 
there  given). 

7  Keep  .  .  .  power  of  sin  :  In  ii.  i  these  identical  words  are  re 
corded  of  Judah  ha-Nasi  ("Rabbi"). 

m  29 

and  before  whom  thou  wilt  (have  to)  give1  account-  and 
reckoning:3 — Whence  thou  earnest:  from  decaying 
seed;4  and  whither  thou  art  going:  to  worm  and 
maggot;''  and  before  whom  thou  wilt  (have  to)  give 
account  and  reckoning  :  before  the  King  of  the  kings 
of  kings — Blessed  be  lie  !  ' 

2.  (2)  Rabbi  Chananiah,  Sagan  6  of  the  priests,  said  :  "  Pray  7  for 
the  peace  of8  the  kingdom,  for  were  it  not  for  the  fear  of  it9 

1  thou  wilt  (have  to)  give  :  jrc  rnr  nnw;  the  word  -rnr  means  some 
thing  fixed  which  is  to  happen,  something  that  stands  predetermined 
the  root  ="  to  stand,"  cp.  Tor),  and  therefore  something  that  is  bound 
to  happen  in  the  future;  hence  the  word  is  often  used  simply  to  express 
the  future,  as  in  the  sentence  before  us.  A  frequent  phrase  in  Rab 
binical  literature  is  «}'•?  Tnrb  (abbreviated  V*yV)i  meaning  the  Messianic 
future,  or  the  life  hereafter.  For  the  form  »rr,  cp.  iv.  10;  v.  i  ;  it  =  the 
Biblical  form  ,-irr. 

-  account:  lit.  ''judgement"  (p)  ;  see  iv.  22  (concluding  words). 
:!  reckoning :  pprr,  from  the  root  I^TT  ;  a  business  term. 

4  decaying  seed  :  lit.  "a  foetid  drop." 

:>  worm  and  maggot:  cp.  ii.  7  :  iv.  4  :  job  \xv.  6  :  two  MSS.  add 

0  E.  Chananiah,  Sagan  .  .  .:  He  lived  before  the  destruction  of  the 
Temple  ;  the  title  Sag'fttt  is  used  in  the  O.T.  (only  in  the  plur.)  of 
prefects  of  Assyria  (in  Kzek.  passim]  and  of  petty  rulers  and  officials 
in  Judah  under  the  suzerain  power,  Persia  (only  in  Ezra  and  Neh.). 
Later  the  title  was  transferred  to  the  chief  of  the  priests  in  the  Temple  ; 
and  the  office  of  the  Sagan  was  apparently  a  kind  of  preparation  for 
that  of  the  high-priest;  for,  according  {n^Ytwia  iii.  41^,  it  was 
necessary  for  a  priest  to  have  been  Sagan  before  he  could  be  appointed 
high-priest  ;  indeed,  he  could,  if  necessary,  fulfil  the  functions  of  the 
high-priest  (T.B.  }'<?/;/<z  39  <?,  Hoffmann).  R.  Chananiah  is  given  the 
title  of  Sagan  whenever  he  is  mentioned  in  Rabbinical  literature  (e.g. 
Eduyoth  ii.  i).  Strack,  op.  r//.,  p.  85,  believes  him  to  have  been  the 
last  Sagan. 

7  Pray:  lit.  "  Be  praying";  the  Hebr.  construction  expresses 
continued  action. 

*  the  peace  of .  .  .:  cp.  i  Tim.  ii.  i,  2. 

y  the  fear  of  it  :  i.e.  of  the  kingdom,  meaning  those  who  preserve 
order  under  the  powers  that  be. 

3°  HI 

(every)   man    would1  have  swallowed   up  his  neighbour 

3.  (3)  Rabbi  Chananiah  ben  Teradyon2  said  :  "(Where)  two  sit 
together  without  the  words  of  the  Torah,  behold,  there  is 
the  seat  of  the  scornful,  as  it  is  said  :  3  '  Nor  sitteth  in 
the  seat  of  the  scornful';4  but  (where)  two5  sit  together 
and  are  occupied  6  with  the  words  of  the  Torah,  there  is 
the  Shekhinah  7  among  them,  as  it  is  said:  'Then  they 

1  (every)  man  would  .  .  .:  One  MS.  reads  :  "  we  should  have  .  .  ." ; 
cp.  for  the  phrase   Ps.   cxxiv.   3  ;  Prov.  i.    12  ;  and  see  Jer.  xxix.   7  ; 
Rom.  xiii.  i  ff. 

2  ...  Teradyon  :  The  spelling  varies  in  the  MSS.     He  suffered  a 
martyr's  death  in  A.D.  135. 

3  as  it  is  said  :  For  this  formula  for  introducing  a  quotation  from 
Scripture,  cp.  Eph.  iv.  8  :  "Wherefore  he  saith."     St.  Paul  generally 
uses  the  formula  "  as  it  is  written." 

4  Nor  sitteth  .  .  .:  Quoted  from   Ps.  i.  i.      It  is  worth  noting  that 
in  Talmudic  citations  from  the  O.T.  the  whole  of  the  verse  or  passage 
is  not  quoted,  but  only  a  few  words  from  it,  the  rest  being  left  for  the 
leader  to  supply  mentally. 

5  but  (where)  two  .  .  .:  cp.  with  this  saying  Matt,  xviii.  20:  "Where 
two  or  three  are  gathered  together  in  My  name,  there  am  I  in  the 
midst  of  them." 

6  occupied  :  cp.  iv.   10  ;  vi.  i  ;  the  root  pcy  means  to  be  diligently 
occupied  \\ith  something,  and  is  used  of  worldly  business  as  well  as 
of  religious  duties. 

7  Shekhinah:  This  word  comes  from  the  root  p\is  "  to  dwell  "or 
"  to  abide."     The  origin  of  the  word-  in   its  technical  sense  is  to  be 
found  in  such  O.T.  passages  as  Exod.  xl.  34  ff.,  in  which  it  is  told  that 
"the  glory  of  the  Lord  filled  the  tabernacle,"  and  the  "cloud"  dwelt 
(shakan]  over  it.     The  glory  of  the   Lord,  conceived  of  as  a  bright, 
shining  light,  was  the  sign  of  the  divine  presence  or  indwelling.    Thus 
the  ideas  of  God's  "glory"  and  of  His  "indwelling"  are  very  closely 
connected  ;  one   was   the  earnest  of  the  other,  and  ultimately  they 
became  identified.     But  inasmuch  as  this  sign  of  the  presence  of  God 
was  conceived  of  as  something  concrete,  i.e.  a  cloud,  it  was  in  a  certain 
sense   differentiated   from    God    Himself.     This  it  was  winch  in  the 
speculations  of  later  days  gave  a  handle  to  the  idea  that  the  medium 
of  God's  indwelling  itself  partook  of  the  nature  of  a  quasi-personality. 
"Shekhinah  is  sometimes  practically  equivalent  to  Memra  (Logos),  but 
one  may  distinguish  between  them  by  regarding  the  one  as  the  medium 

Ill  31 

that  feared   the    Lord  spake  one  with  another,  and  the 

Lord  hearkened  and  heard.'1 

(4)  2  [One    that    sitteth   and    studieth    (the  Torah)    the 

Scripture  reckoneth  it  to  him  as  though  he 
had  fulfilled  the  whole  Torah,  as  it  is  said : 
'  He  sitteth  alone  and  keepeth  silence,  because 
he  hath  laid  it  upon  him.' "] 

4.  (5)  Rabbi  Simeon3  said;    "Three  who  have  eaten  at  one 
table,  and  have  not  spoken4  words  of  Torah  over  it,  are  as 

of  a.  passive,  the  other  of  an  active  manifestation  ;  the  one  as  creative, 
the  other  as  overshadowing  or  indwelling.  The  two  are  brought 
together  by  St.  John,  in  whose  theology  the  conceptions  assume  a  new 
definiteness,  and  the  medium  becomes  a  Mediator  :  o  Ao-yo?  aapt 
f-y€V€To,  *at  caKyvaHrtv  ei>  rjfilv  (i.  14).  The  word  o-Krjvrf  and  its  derivatives 
are  chosen  on  account  of  their  assonance  with  the  Hebrew  to  express 
the  Shekhinah  and  its  dwelling  with  men  ;  cp.  especially  Rev.  xxi.  3  ; 
and,  indeed,  so  closely  does  Shekhinah  resemble  o-Kipq  that  the  former 
has  even  been  thought  of  as  a  transliteration  of  the  latter.  The  word 
is  rare  in  the  Mishnah,  but  occurs  frequently  in  Midrash  and  Gemara" 
(Taylor,  p.  44). 

1  Then  they  that  .  .  .:  Quoted  from  Mai.  iii.  16  ;  the  point  of  the 
quotation  lies  in  the  words  "one  with  another,"  i.e.  two  people  speaking 
with  one  another.     Some  MSS.  add  the  rest  of  the  verse:  "and  a 
book  of  remembrance  was  written  before  Him,  for  them  that  feared 
the  Lord  and  that  thought  upon  His  name." 

2  [One  that  sitteth  .  .  .]  :  This  is  a  later  insertion  ;  the  differences 
ot  readings  in  the  MSS.  are  not  of  importance  ;  the  quotation  is  from 
Lam.  iii.  28. 

l{  K.  Simeon :  This  is  Simeon  ben  Jochai,  frequently  mentioned  in 
the  Mishnah,  who  lived  during  the  beginning  and  middle  of  the  second 
century  A.D.  ;  he  was  one  of  R.  Akiba's  leading  pupils  ;  cp.  iv.  13  ; 
vi.  8.  He  taught  in  Galilee. 

4  ...  and  have  not  spoken  .  .  .:  It  is  probable  that  grace  before 
and  after  a  meal  is  referred  to  here  ;  this  has  always  been  regarded  as 
absolutely  essential  by  the  Jews  ;  they  trace  the  custom  back  to  the 
patriarch  Abraham  (T.B.  Sofa  ioa).  "The  antiquity  of  thanksgiving- 
after  meals  is  attested  by  several  ancient  writers,  e.g.  Josephus,  Bell. 
Jud.  II.  viii.  5.  The  custom  of  one  of  the  company  tak'ng  the  lead  in 
calling  the  rest  to  offer  thanks  is,  according  to  the  Palestinian  Talmud 
(Berakhoth  vii.  3),  as  old  as  Simeon  ben  Shetach  .  .  ."  (Abrahams, 
p.  ccviii  ;  cp.  John  vi.  n).  The  present  Jewish  Liturgy  contains  a 

though  they  had  eaten  sacrifices  for  the  dead,1  as  it 
is  said  :  '  For  all  tables  are  full  of  vomit  (and)  filthiness 
(6)  without  Makom.' a  But  three  who  have  eaten  at  one  table, 
and  have  spoken  words  of  Torah  over  it,  are  as  though 
they  had  eaten  from  the  table  of  Makom  3 — Blessed  be 
He  ! — as  it  is  said  :  '  And  he  said  unto  me,  This  is  the 
table  that  is  before  the  Lord.'"  4 

5.  (7)  Rabbi  Chaninah  ben  Chakinai5  said:  "He  that  lies  awake6 
in  the  night  and  he  that  walks  in  the  way  alone,7  and  turns8 

special  form  of  grace  before  and  after  meals,  which  is  based  on  ancient 
material,  and  the  pointed  references  to  the  Torah  recall  R.  Simeon's 
words  in  the  saying  before  us. 

1  sacrifices  for  the  dead :  Exaggerated  statements  such  as  this 
are  frequently  found  in  Rabbinical  writings  ;  they  have  the  purpose 
of  arresting  the  attention,  and  of  driving  home  the  lesson  or  warning 
given.  Regarding  "sacrifices  for  the  dead,"  cp.  the  connected  passages 
Num.  xxv.  2,  3  ;  Ps.  cvi.  28  (see  also  Is.  viii.  19).  In  the  Mishnah 
tractate  Abodah  Zarah  ii.  3,  it  is  said  that  flesh  which  comes  from  an 
idol's  temple  is  forbidden  to  Israelites  "  because  it  is  looked  upon  as  a 
sacrifice  for  the  dead  ;  these  are  the  words  of  Rabbi  Akiba."  Accord 
ing  to  this,  therefore,  sacrifices  for  the  dead  are  equivalent  to  sacrifices 
offered  to  idols  ;  for  these  latter  cp.  i  Cor.  viii. 

-  For  all  tables  .  .  .:  Quoted  from  Is.  xxviii.  18  ;  on  "  Makom  "  see 
note  to  ii.  13. 

3  the  table  of  Makom  :    Evidently  meaning   the  altar;  cp.  "the 
table  of  the  Lord"  in  i  Cor.  x.  21. 

4  And  he  said  unto  me  .  .  . :  Quoted  from  Ezek.  xli.  22. 

r>  R.  Chaninah  b.  Ch.:  He  lived  during  the  first  half  of  the  second 
century  A.I).  ;  he  was  one  of  the  elder  disciples  of  R.  Akiba  ;  lie 
belonged  to  Sidon. 

u  He  that  lies  awake  .  .  .:  Whenever  a  man  is  alone,  the  Rabbi 
teaches,  his  thoughts  should  be  occupied  with  good  things,  i.e.  with 
the  words  of  the  Torah,  otherwise  they  are  apt  to  wander  into  wrong- 
directions  ;  cp.  i  Thess.  v.  10  :  ".  .  .  that,  whether  we  wake  or  sleep, 
we  should  live  together  with  Him." 

7  alone  :  TIT,  of  which  the  Biblical  form  is  TIT- 

8  and  turns :  Reading  nscai,  which  is   probably  the  correct   one, 
though  a  majority  of  the  MSS.  read  rraErarn,  making  it  a  participle  like 

the  other  two  ;  in  this  case  the  meaning  would  be  that  he  who  lies 
awake  in  the  night,  and  who  walks  in  the  way  alone,  and  who  turns 

his  heart  to  vain  thoughts,1  behold,  such  a  man  makes 
himself  guilty-  against  his  own  soul." 

6.  (8)  Rabbi  Nechuniah  ben  ha-Kanab  3  said :  "Whosoever  takes4 

upon  him  the  yoke  of  the  Torali,  from  him  is  removed 
the  yoke  of  the  government5  and  the  yoke  of  worldly 
care ; 6  and  whosoever  breaks  from  off  him  the  yoke 7 
of  the  Torah,  they  lay  upon  him  the  yoke  of  the  govern 
ment  and  the  yoke  of  worldly  care." 

7.  (9)  Rabbi  Chalaphta8  of  Kephar-Chanani:ah  said  :   "When  ten 

his  heart  to  vain  thoughts,  makes  himself  guilty,  etc.  This  threefold 
form  in  uttering  maxims  is  a  favourite  one  among  the  early  Rabbis. 
But  the  other  reading  commends  itself  because  the  saying  emphasises 
the  danger  of  loneliness  ;  when  a  man  is  alone  there  is  more  danger 
of  his  giving  way  to  vain  thoughts  than  when  he  is  in  company. 

1  vain  thoughts  :  rnsa,  lit.  "vanity"  or  "idleness";  the  root  mean 
ing  is  "  to  be  void  "  or  "  empty." 

-  makes  himself  guilty  .  .  .:  i.e.  sins  against  himself. 

3  R.  Nechuniah  b.  ha-K.  :  He  lived  during  the  greater  part  of  the 
first  century  A.D.,  and  was  a  contemporary  of  both  R.  Jochanan  ben 
Zakkai  and  R.  Akiba,  and  lived  to  a  great  age.     According  to  Hoff 
mann,  "  ben-Kanah  "  is  perhaps  an  abbrev.  form  of  "  ben-Kana'ah" 
(same  root  as  Cain  =  smith)  ;  "the  translation  'son  of  Zelotes '  is  in 
any  case  incorrect." 

4  Whosoever  takes  .  •. .:  lit.  "receives";  with  the  saying  cp.  Matt, 
xi.  29,  30 :  "  Take  My  yoke  upon  you,  and  learn  of  Me  .  .  .";  and  cp. 
Berakhoth  ii.  2  :  "  the  yoke  of  the  kingdom  of  Heaven,"  and  "  the  yoke 
of  the  commandments"  (=  Torah). 

5  government :  lit.  "  kingdom "  (malkutfi) ;  as  Taylor  points  out, 
"  the  yoke  ofmalkutk  stands  for  the  burdens,  as  of  taxation,  put  upon 
a  man  by  the  government  under  which  he  lives,  or  the  oppression 
which  he  may  suffer  at  the  hands  of  the  great."     These  things  do  not 
trouble  a  man  when  he  gives  himself  whole-heartedly  to  the  service 
of  the  Torah. 

6  worldly  care :  lit.  "  the  way  of  the  earth  "  (p«  -j-n)  ;  see  note  on 

7  breaks  the  yoke:  The  same  word  (p-e)  occurs  in  iv.  7  in  the  sense 
of  "freeing  oneself";  cp.  Gen.  xxvii.  40,  of  "shaking  off  the  yoke." 

8  R.  Chalaphta:    Some   MSS.  add  "ben  Dosa";    as   this  Rabbi 
lived  rather  later  (second  half  of  second  century)  than  those  who  are 

34  l" 

sit  together1  and  are  occupied  with  the  Torah,  the 
Shekhinah  2  is  among  them,  as  it  is  said  :  *  God  standeth 
in  the  congregation  of  God.' 

3  [And  whence  (can  this  be  proved  of)  even  five?  as 
it  is  said  :  '  He  judgeth  among  gods.'] 

named  before  and  after  him  here,  it  is  probable  that  this  saying  is  out 
of  place.  He  was  a  pupil  of  R.  Meir  (see  iv.  14).  Kephar-Chananiah 
is  a  small  village  in  Galilee. 

1  When  ten  sit  together  .  .  . :  cp.  Matt,  xviii.  20.  The  origin  of 
the  rule  that  not  less  than  ten  men  are  necessary  to  constitute  a 
congregation  is  probably  to  be  sought  in  the  fact  that  ten  heads  of 
families  formed  in  very  early  times  the  smallest  political  subdivision 
(see  Exod.  xviii.  21,  24)  ;  but  in  the  Talmud  the  Biblical  authority  is 
said  to  be  Num.  xiv.  27  :  "  How  long  shall  I  bear  with  this  evil 
congregation  which  murmur  against  Me?"  Regarding  these  words, 
it  is  said  that  they  refer  to  the  ten  scouts  sent  to  spy  out  the  land, 
i.e.  there  were  really  twelve,  but  Caleb  and  Joshua  were  righteous  ; 
this  left  ten,  who  were  an  "evil  congregation"  (the  Talmudic  comment 
on  the  Mishnah  Megillah  i.  3).  The  number  ten  applied  to  this 
"  congregation  '  (rnv  =  ledah)  was  supposed  to  suggest  that  any  con 
gregation  assembled  for  worship  should  consist  of  not  less  than  ten 
men.  It  is  a  good  example  of  the  way  a  Scriptural  text  is  pressed 
into  use  provided  it  contains  the  essential  word,  in  this  case  "  con 
gregation."  Since,  then,  it  was  an  understood  thing  that  ten  men 
constituted  a  sufficient  number  for  the  holding  of  divine  service,  i.e.  a 

standeth.  The  modern  name  for  the  minimum 'of  ten  is  Minyan*  lit. 
"  count." 

-  Shekhinah :  See  note  on  iii.  3. 

3  [And  whence  (can  .  .  .] :  This  is  a  later  addition.  The  MSS. 
vary;  some  omit  "five,"  others  connect  "five"  with  the  proof-text, 
Amos  ix.  6  ("  He  hath  founded  .  .  .").  The  later  Rabbi  who  inserted 
these  words  in  brackets,  desiring  to  give  Biblical  authority  for  the 
Shekhinah  being  among  five  men,  bethought  him  that  in  a  court 
Ql judgement  the  smallest  number  was  five,  i.e.  three  judges  and  two 
litigants;  the  essential  word  was  "judge,"  which  he  found  ready  to 
hand  in  the  same  verse  in  which  the  previous  essential  word  ("  con 
gregation")  was  found.  But  if,  as  in  other  MSS.,  the  "five"  is  con 
nected  with  Amos  ix.  6,  then  the  essential  word  is  "  troop  "  (mr«)  for 

"l  35 

And  whence  (can  this  be  proved  of)  even  three  ? 1  as  it  is 
said  :  *  He  hath  founded  his  troop  upon  the  earth.'  And 
whence  even  (of)  two  ? 2  as  it  is  said  :  '  Then  they  that 
feared  the  Lord  spake  often  one  to  another,  and  the 
Lord  hearkened  and  heard.'  And  whence  even  (of) 
one  ?  3  as  it  is  said  :  '  In  every  place  where  I  record  My 
name  I  will  come  unto  thee  and  bless  thee.' " 

8.  (10)  Rabbi  Eleazar  ben  Jehudah4of  Bartotha5  said:  "Give  to 
Him  6  of  that  which  is  His,  for  thou  and  that  which  is  thine 
are  His;7  and  thus  He  saith  in  David:8  'For  all  things 
come  of  Thee,  and  of  Thine  own  have  we  given  Thee.'  "9 

in  Hebrew  this  word  also  means  a  "bundle"  which  can  be  grasped 
with  the  "five"  fingers. 

1  And  whence  .  .  .  even  three?  .  .  .:  Here  "three"  is  connected 
with  Amos  ix.  6,  where  again  "troop"  (H-DUN)  is  the  essential  word, 
because  three  is  the  smallest  number  of  which  a  troop  can  consist ; 
or  one  can  explain  it  as  Rashi  does,  who  interprets  the  words  in 
Exod.  xii.  22,  a  "bundle"  (rrna«),  or  bunch,  of  hyssop,  as  consisting 
of  three  stalks  (Taylor). 

2  And  whence  .  .  .  (of)  two  ?  .  .  .:  Here  the  essential  words  in  the 
proof-text,    Mai.  iii.   16,   are  "one   to  another"   (lit.  "a  man  to  his 
neighbour"),  i.e.  two  men. 

3  And  whence  .  .  .  (of)  one  ?  .  .  . :  In  the  proof-text,  Exod.  xx.  24, 
the   essential   word   is    "  thee,"   referring  to  a  single   person.      This 
method  of  fixing  on  proof-texts   from  the   Scriptures  strikes  us,  of 
course,  as  very  far-fetched  and  mechanical  ;  but  it  must  be  remembered 
that  this  was  the  recognised  Rabbinical  method,  and  it  is  that  which 
is  not  infrequently  employed  by  the  New  Testament  writers  in  their 
use  of  the  Old  Testament  ;  e.g.  Matt.  ii.  15,  17,  18  ;  iii.  3  ;  Gal.  iii.  16  ; 
iv.  27,  30  ;  etc. 

4  R.  Eleazar  b.  J. :  He  lived  at  the  end  of  the  first,  and  early  part 
of  the  second,  century ;  a  contemporary  of  R.  Akiba.     Ben  Jehudah  is 
omitted  by  some  MSS. 

5  Bartotha  :  a  village  in  Upper  Galilee. 
0  Give  to  Him :  i.e.  to  God. 

7  for  thou  and  .  .  .:  cp.  John  xvii.  10. 

8  in  David  :  For  the  form  of  the  phrase  cp.  Mark  xii.  26  ;  Rom. 
ix.  25  ;  xi.  2  ;  its  exact  form  occurs  in  Hebr.  iv.  7. 

9  For  all  things  .  .  .:  This  is  a  quotation  from   I  Chron.  xxix.  14, 
but  the  words  "in  David"  are  strictly  correct,  for  the  quotation  is  from 
David's  hymn  of  thanksgiving. 

D   2 

36  in 

9.  (i  i)  Rabbi  Jacob1  said :  "He  who  walks  in  the  way  and  studies,  - 
and  interrupts  3  his  study,2  saying  :  *  How  beautiful  is  this 
tree,'  (or)  'How  beautiful  is  this  ploughed  field,'4  the 
Scripture  reckons  it  unto  him  5  as  if  he  had  made  himself 
guilty  against6  his  own  soul." 

10.  (12)  Rabbi  Dosthai  ben  Rabbi  Jannai 7  said  in  the  name  of8 

1  Rabbi  Jacob  :  This  is  not  the  same  R.  Jacob  mentioned  in  iv.  16, 
but  the  son  of  Eliezer  ben  Jacob  the  elder,  who  lived  during  the  second 
half  of  the  first  century  A.D.  Some  texts  read  here  "  Simeon,"  others 
"  Akiba,"  but  "Jacob  "  is  the  best  attested  reading. 

-  and  studies ...  his  study  :  The  word  in  each  case  is  "mishnah"; 
it  comes  from  the  root  meaning  "to  repeat,"  hence  "to  learn";  the  noun 
in  its  technical  sense  means  "  study,"  especially  in  relation  to  the  Law, 
and  then  the  result  of  this  study,  i.e.  the  Mishnah  ;  the  word  is  also 
used  of  a  single  passage  from  this  compendium,  "a  mishnah,"  plur. 
mishnaioth.  The  Aramaic  for  Mishnah  is  Tanna.  and  this  is  the 
technical  name  (plur.  Tannaini)  given  to  the  Rabbinical  authorities 
during  the  first  two  centuries  A.I). 

3  interrupts  :  pcs  =  the  Biblical  p-ro  ("  to  part "  or  "  separate  ";  very 
rare,  only  Prov.  xiii.  3  ;  Ezek.  xvi.  25). 

4  ploughed  field  :  T:,  from  the  root  meaning  "  to  break  up,"  as 
distinct  from   "  fallow  ground "  (TQ)  ;    the  two  are  distinguished    in 
Peak  ii.  i  (Jastrow). 

5  the   Scripture...:   v?r  nbm  nron,   "  that  which   is   written   (i.e. 
the    Scripture)  reckons  it  unto  him  ";  this  is  a  frequently  occurring 
phrase,  and  is  usually  followed  by  a  quotation  from   Scripture  ;  cp. 
Gal.  iii.  22. 

6  .  .  .  guilty  against .  .  .:  cp.  iii.  5,  and  see  note  there. 

7  E.  Dosthai  b.  R.  J.:  He  lived  during  the  latter  half  of  the  second 
century ;    the   name   Dosthai  =  Dositheos   (it    occurs    in    Josephus, 
Antiq.  XV.  vi.  2  ;  Apion.  ii.  5,  and  on  an  inscription  found  in  Nysa  in 
Asia  Minor,   Schurer,  iii.  pp.   16,  73  ;  see  also  3  Mace.  i.  3\     Greek 
names ^  often   occur   in   the    Mishnah,  e.g.  Antigonos  in  i.    3  above. 
Jannai :  An  abbreviation  for  Jehonathan  ;  for  similar  abbreviations 
see  i.  8  ;  ii.  8. 

8  in  the  name  of:  The  regular  formula   indicating  from  whom 
traditional  teaching  is  handed  down  ;  lit.  "from  the  name  of"  (DITO). 
The  form  Q^  =  the  Biblical  etf,  though  the  later  form  occurs  several 
times  in  Ezra  and  Daniel. 

in  37 

Rabbi  Meir : l  "Whosoever2  forgets3  a  single  word  of 
his  study4  they  reckon5  it  unto  him  as  though  he  had 
made  himself  guilty  against  his  own  soul,  as  it  is  said : 
'Only  take  heed  to  thyself  and  keep  thy  soul  diligently, 
lest  thou  forget  the  words  which  thine  eyes  have  seen.'  6 
It  might  (however) 7  be  that  his  study  was  (too)  hard  for 
him  (to  remember),  therefore  learn  to  say :  '  And  lest 
they  depart  from  thy  heart  all  the  days  of  thy  life.' 8 
Thus,9  he  has  not  made  himself  guilty  against  his  own 
soul  unless  he  sits  (idle)  and  puts  them  away 10  from 
his  heart." 

1  R.  Meir :  See  iv.  12. 

2  Whosoever:  One  MS.  reads  :  "Whatsoever  scholar  among  the 
wise  (Chakamini]  sits  and  studies  and,  etc.";  this  is  probably  a  later 

3  forgets  .  .  .:  As  the  traditional  handing  down  of  the  Oral  Law  was 
not  committed  to  writing,  anything  that  was  forgotten  was  a  permanent 
loss  to  later  teachers. 

4  study  :  lit.  "  mishnah." 

5  they  reckon:  See  note  on  preceding  verse.     Some  MSS.  have  : 
"  that  which  is  written  reckons  it  unto  him."     Here  the  usual  rule  of 
quoting  the  Scriptures  after  this  formula  is  followed. 

c  Only  take  heed  .  .  . :  Deut.  iv.  9  ;  in  this  text  the  words  "  which 
thine  eyes  have  seen  "  did  not,  of  course,  apply  to  the  Oral  Law,  but 
this  did  not  trouble  the  ancient  Rabbi  ;  it  was  sufficient  that  the  text 
contained  the  essential  words  "  lest  thou  forget  the  words." 

7  It   might   (however)  .  .  .:    This  is  a  mitigation  of  what  might 
appear  so  severe  a  judgement  (making  himself  guilty  against  his  own 
soul)  for  a  mere  lapse  of  memory  ;  therefore,  it  is  pointed  out  that  it  is 
not   the    simple  forgetting  which  is  blamed,  but  the  deliberate  and 
wilful  failure  to  try  to  remember.    Taylor  appropriately  refers  to  Isaac 
bar  Shelomoh,  who  quotes  from  the  Midrash  Sifrc  (on  Numbers  and 
Deuteronomy)  that  "a  man  should  be  as  careful  to  preserve  hisTorah 
as  his  money,  for  it  is  hardly  gotten,  as  gold,  and  perishes  easily,  as 
glass  (Job  xxviii.  17).   He  who  learns  Torah  and  does  not  repeat  it  is  as 
one  who  sows  and  does  not  reap.     He  who  learns  and  forgets  is  like 
a  mother  that  bears  and  buries." 

8  And  lest  .  .  .:  Continuation  of  the  quotation  from  Ueut.  iv.  9. 

9  Thus  :  lit.  "  Behold." 

10  and  puts  .  .  .:  lit.  "and  turns  them  away." 

38  in 

ii.  (13)  Rabbi  Chaninah  ben  Dosa1  said  :  "Whosesoever  fear  of 
sin  2  precedes  3  his  wisdom,  that  man's  wisdom  endures  ; 4 
and  whosesoever  wisdom  precedes  his  fear  of  sin,  his 
wisdom  endures  not." 

12. 5  (14)  He  used  to  say:  "Whosesoever  works6  are  more 
abundant  than  his  wisdom,  his  wisdom  endures ;  and 
whosesoever  wisdom  is  more  abundant  than  his  works, 
his  wisdom  endures  not." 

13. 7  (15)  He  used  to  say:  "With  whomsoever  the  spirit  of  man 
kind  is  pleased,  the  Spirit  of  God  is  pleased  ;  and  with 
whomsoever  the  spirit  of  mankind  is  not  pleased,  the 
Spirit  of  God  is  not  pleased."8 

1  R.  Chaninah  b.  D.:  A  contemporary  of  R.  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai ; 
he  lived  in  the  latter  half  of  the  first  century  A.D.,  and  was  specially 
celebrated  as  a  worker  of  miracles.     Some  MSS.  read  Chahaniah  ; 
but    Chaninah   is   the   name  found   in   other  writings.      Dosa  is  an 
abbreviated  form  of  Dosthai  in  the  preceding  verse. 

2  Whosesoever  fear  of  sin  .  .  .:  cp.  Ps.  cxi.  10  :  "The  fear  of  the 
Lord  is  the  zenith  («>n)  of  wisdom."     Wisdom  in  this  saying  means 
knowledge  of  the  Law. 

3  precedes  :  i.e.  takes  precedence. 

4  endures:  lit.  " is  confirmed." 

"  This  saying  is  omitted  by  two  MSS. 

6  Whosesoever  works  .  .  . :  cp.  i.  17  :  "  Not  the  study  (of  the  Law), 
but  the  carrying  out  of  it  is  the  essential  thing."     The'"  works"  refer 
here  to  the  carrying  out  of  the  Law.    Rabbinical  opinion  on  the  subject 
of  the  relative  superiority  between  the   study  of  the  Law  and   the 
carrying  out  of  the  works  of  the    Law  differs.     As  opposed  to  the 
teaching  of  this  saying,  Taylor  cites  Sifre  on  the  text  Deut.  xi.  13  : 
"  If  ye  shall  hearken  diligently  unto  My  commandments,"  "  as  it  is 
said  :  'And  ye  shall  learn  them,  and  ye  shall  observe  to  do  them' 
(Deut.  v.  i).     The  Scripture  shows  that  doing  depends  on  learning, 
and  not  learning  on  doing."     See  further  Weber,  pp.  284  ff. 

7  AN  omits  the  whole  of  this  saying  ;  according  to  the  Tosephta, 
Berakhoth  iii.  3,  it  was  uttered  by  R.  Akiba. 

8  With  whomsoever  the  .  .  . :  The  saying  is  not  to  be  taken  in  a 
literal  sense  ;  it  is  a  general  statement  expressive  of  the  belief  that 
there  is  a  correspondence  of  things  in  heaven  and  earth. 

in  39 

14.  (16)  Rabbi  Dosa  ben  Harkinas  l  said:   "  Morning  sleep,2  and 

rnid-day  wine,  and  children's  babbling,  and  sitting  in  the 
meeting-houses  of  the  common  people,3  drive  a  man4 
out  of  the  world." 

15.  (17)  Rabbi  Eleazar  ha-Modai 5  said:  "He  that  profanes  holy 

things 6  and  despises  the  set  feasts,"  [and  shames  the  face 
of  his  neighbour  publicly]8  and  makes  the  covenant9 

1  R.  Dosa  b.  H.  :  He  lived  at  the  end  of  the  first,  and  during  the 
first   half  of  the    second,    century,  and   was    contemporary  with  the 
disciples  of  Jochanan  ben  Zakkai.     Harkinas  is  another  Greek  name 
( =  'Ap^Ii/os). 

2  Morning  sleep  .  .  . :  The  real  objection  to  all  these  four  things  is 
that  they  prevent  whole-hearted  study  of  the  Law. 

3  the  meeting-houses  of .  .  .:  i.e.  the  synagogues  of  the  ''am  ha-aretz 
(on  these  latter  see  note  on  ii.  6)  ;  A N explains  by  saying  :  "they  that 
sit  at  the  street-corners"  (mnp  'ativ).     The   synagogue  was  not  only 
used  for  worship  ;    among  other  things    children  were  taught  there 
(cp.  the  modern  name  among  the   common  folk  for  the  synagogue, 

4  drive  a  man  .  .  .:  See  note  on  ii.  14. 

5  R.  Eleazar  ha-M.  :  One  MS.  reads  R.  Li'ezer.     He  lived  during 
the  latter  half  of  the  first,  and  former  half  of  the  second,  century,  and 
was  an  active  supporter  of  the  Bar  Cochba  rebellion  in  the  reign  ot 
Hadrian.     The  name  of  ha-Modai,  "the   Modinite,"  was   given  him 
because  he  was  a  native  of  Modin  (Modi'im),  the  present  El-Medije, 
east    of  Lydda,   celebrated   as  the  home  of  the   Maccabaean  family, 
i  Mace.  ii.  1-5,  70  ;  xiii.  25. 

6  holy  things  :  AN  reads  "  Sabbaths."     Kodashim  ("  holy  things  ") 
and  Mo'ed  ("set  feast")  are  the  names  of  Mishnic  tractates,   and 
treat  respectively  of  holy  things  and  festivals. 

7  the   set   feasts:    ha-mo'adoth   (cp.  2  Chron.  viii.   13)  refer  here 
probably  to    the    days    which    are   holy  days   between  the  feasts  of 
Passover  and  Tabernacles,  for  these  feasts  themselves  are  not  likely 
to  have  been  ignored  by  any.     There  is  no   Biblical  prohibition  of 
work  on  these  intermediate  days,  though  Rabbinical  law  forbade  work 
during  them. 

8  [and  shames  .  .  .  publicly] :   These  words  are  omitted  by  AN 
and  two  MSS.,  while  two  others  place  them  after  the  next  sentence. 
They  are  not  original.     The  word  "to  shame  "here  means  lit.  "to 
make  white." 

9  and  makes  the  covenant  .  .  .:  cp.  i  Mace.  i.  15  :  "...  and  they 

40  in 

of  our  father  Abraham  of  none  effect,  and  acts1  bare 
facedly  against  the  Torah — he  has  no  portion  in  the 
world  to  come,2  even  though  there  be  good  works3  to 
his  credit." 

1 6.  (18)  Rabbi  Ishmael  4  said  :  "  Be  quick  (in  doing  service)  to  a 
superior,5  and  kindly  disposed  towards  the  aged,6  and 
receive  every  man  with  cheerfulness." 

made   themselves   uncircumcised,   and   forsook   the   holy   covenant" 
("  Epispasmus  ")  ;  cp.  i  Cor.  vii.  18. 

1  and  acts  .  .  . :  One  MS.  omits  the  words  :  "and  acts  barefacedly 
against  the  Torah,  even  though  there  be  good  works  to  his  credit." 
A N  acids  after  "the  Torah,"  "which  is  not  according  to  the  Hala- 
kah,"  i.e.   the   traditional   way,   or    rule.      The   phrase   lit.    is  "  and 
uncovers  his  face  against  the  Torah,"  in  contrast  to  covering  the  face 
out  of  reverence  ;  see  Is.  vi.  2. 

2  the  world  to  come  :  See  note  on  ii.  8. 

3  though  there  be  good  works  .  .  .  :  Several  MSS.  have  wrongly  : 
"  though  there  be  Torah  and  good  works  . .  ."  According  to  Rabbinical 
teaching  a  man's  good  works  were  balanced  against  his  evil  ones,  and 
according  as  to  whether  the  good  or   the  evil  weighed   heavier  he 
entered  into  bliss  or  torment  ;  in  T.B.  Kiddushin  40  b  it  is  said  that  a 
man  is  judged  "  according  to  that  which  balances,"  i.e.  according  as  to 
whether  the  good  or  the  evil  deeds  weigh  down  the  balance  ;    cp. 
Dan.  v.  27  :    "Thou    art    weighed   in    the   balances   and   art   found 

4  R.  Ishmael :  lived  during  the  latter  part  of  the  first,  and  former 
half  of  the  second,  century  ;  a  contemporary  of  R.  Akiba.     His  home 
was  in  Kephar  'Asis,  a  village  on  the  border  of  Edom. 

a  Be  quick  .  .  .  superior  :  The  meaning  of  this  phrase  is  uncertain  ; 
lit.  it  is:  "Be  light  of  head,"  or  "to  a  head."  In  support  of  the 
rendering  "  quick  "  we  have  in  v.  20  :  "  Be  swift  as  an  eagle  ...  to  do 
the  will  of  thy  Father  in  Heaven"  ;  bp  is  not  infrequently  used  in  the 
sense  of  "  quick."  The  word  for  "  superior"  is  ran,  lit.  "head";  and 
often  occurs  in  this  sense  ;  cp.  Job  xxix.  25,  where  \&o  is  parallel  to  -po 
("king").  The  same  expression,  "light  of  head,"  occurs  in  the  next 
saying,  but  there  it  is  in  an  entirely  different  connexion  and  means  a 
careless  disposition. 

6  and  kindly  .  .  .  aged :  Here  again  the  meaning  is  uncertain  ;  as 
to  the  word  rendered  "the  aged"  (it  is  an  abstract  ncun  in  the 
original),  mmijn  is  used  in  several  senses.  Hoffmann  cites  several 
passages  in  favour  of  the  meaning  "old  age,"  and  for  the  general  sense 
cp.  Kccles,  xii.  2  ;  fhoreover,  this  meaning  makes  a  good  parallel  to 

Ill  41 

[7.  (19)  Rabbi    Akiba l  said:     "Laughter  and    levity2  lead   to^ 
lewdness."  3 

1 8.  (20)  He  used  to  say:  "The  Tradition4  is  a  fence  to  theTorah  ; 

vows  are  a  defence  to  self-control ; 5  silence 6  is  a  defence 
to  wisdom." 

19.  (21)  He  used  to  say  :  "Beloved  is  man  who  has  been  created 

in  the  image  (of  God)  ;  [It  was  greater  love  that  it  was 
made  known  to  him  that  he  was  created  in  the  image 
(of  God)  ;] 7  as  it  is  said  :  '  For  in  the  image  of  God  He 
made  man.'" 

"a  superior"  in  the  first  clause  of  the  saying.  In  other  places  the 
word  means  just  the  contrary,  viz.  "youth,"  and  in  yet  others  "  govern 
ment  ";  the  commentators  vary  in  their  interpretation  of  the  word  here. 

1  R.  Akiba  :  Born  in  the  middle  of  the  first  century,  he  was  killed 
about  135  A.D.  as  being  one  of  the  chief  supporters  of  the  Bar  Cochba 
rebellion  ;  he  believed  that  Bar  Cochba  was  the  Messiah.  He  was 
of  non-Jewish  parentage,  and  until  his  fortieth  year  was  opposed  to 
the  Rabbis,  yet  ultimately  he  gained  a  name  which  was  second  to  none 
among  the  Rabbis.  It  was  evident,  as  Strack  (Einleitung  in  den 
Talmud^  p.  19,  4th  cd.)  shows,  that  R.  Akiba  had  already  begun  a 
mishnic  collection  ;  the  words  "  the  Mishnah  of  R.  Akiba "  occur 
repeatedly  ;  for  full  evidence  see  Strack. 

*  levity  :  lit.  "lightness  of  head." 

3  lewdness  :  rmy  ;  the  plur.  form  occurs  in  v.  9.     AN  adds  :  "  It  is 
a  defence  to  (a  man's)  honour  not  to  be  frivolous." 

4  The  Tradition  .  .  .  :  Massoreth,  or  Massorah  ;  see  notes  on  i.  i. 
These  words  are  missing  in  one  MS.     Some   MSS.  add  :  "Tithes  are 
a  fence  to  wealth." 

5  self-control :  lit.  "separation  ";  the  usual  connexion  in  which  the 
word  is  used  shows  that  it  means  "  self-control,"  whether  from  fleshly 
or  other  forms  of  indulgence  ;  see  Jastrow,  s.v.     A  vow  of  abstinence 
acts  as  a  defence. 

0  silence  .  .  . :  cp.  i.  17. 

7  [It  was  greater  .  .  .]  :  Several  MSS.  omit  this  clause  ;  it  is 
evidently  not  original,  for  the  proof-text  (Gen.  i.  27 ;  cp.  ix.  6)  does  not 
bear  it  out.  That  the  fact  of  making  known  an  act  of  grace  is  greater 
proof  of  love  than  the  act  of  grace  itself  is  open  to  question  ;  the 
statement  was  probably  added  on  account  of  the  exaggerated  venera 
tion  for  the  Torah  through  which  it  was  "  made  known."  According 
to  AN)  this  saying  is  ascribed  to  R.  Meir,  who  probably  heard  it  from 
R.  Akiba  (Hoffmann). 

42  in 

20.  (22)  "  Beloved  are  Israel  which  are  called  the  sons  of  God.1 

It  was  greater  love  that  it  was  made  known  to  them  that 
they  were  called  the  sons  of  God,  as  it  is  said  :  '  Ye  are 
the  sons  of  the  Lord  your  God.'"2 

21.  (23)  "Beloved  are  Israel  to  whom  was  given  a  precious  instru 

ment  3  wherewith  the  world  was  created.  It  was  greater 
love  that  it  was  made  known  to  them  that  there  was 
given  unto  them  a  precious  instrument  whereby  the  world 
was  created,  as  it  is  said  :  '  For  a  good  doctrine  have  I 
given  you  ;  forsake  not  my  Law.'  "  4 

1  God  :  "  Makom  ";  see  note  on  ii.  13. 

'2  Ye  are  the  sons  .  .  .:  Quoted  from  Deut.  xiv.  i;  cp.i  John  iii.  1,2. 

3  a  precious  instrument .  .  . :   "  Precious  "   is   omitted   by   some 
authorities  ;  so,  too,  in  the  next  sentence.     The  "  instrument "  is  the 
Torah.     The  doctrine   that  the  world  was  created  by  the  Torah  is 
logically  evolved  from  various  other  doctrines  of  Judaism  ;  first,  the 
Torah  is  the  expression  of  the  divine  mind  and  will  ;  then,  the  Torah 
and  Wisdom  are  again  and  again  identified  (e.g.  Sir.  v.  23  ;  Baruch 
iv.  i  ;  etc.)  ;  moreover,  an  identification,  or  something  very  close  to  it, 
is  taught  between  the  Torah  and  the  Memra  (  =  "  Word "  of  God). 
Bearing  these  identifications  in  mind,  and  remembering  how  distinctly 
it   is  taught  that  the  world  was  created  by  the  Wisdom  (eg.  Wisd. 
viii.  22-31,  etc.)  and  by  the  Word  (e.g.   Ps.  xxxiii.  6;  cp.  cxlviii.  9; 
Sir.  xlii.  15  ;  Wisd.  iv.  i  ;  4  Esdras  vi.  38  ;  cp.  John  i.  i  ff.)  of  God,  it 
is  easy  to  understand  how  the  idea  arose  of  the  world  having  been 
created  by  the  instrumentality  of  the  Torah.     In  connexion  with  this, 
it  is  worth  pointing  out  that  the  existence  of  the  Torah  before  the 
creation  of  the  world  is  directly  taught,  e.g.  in  the  Midrash  Bereshith 
Rabba  i.  :  "Six  things  preceded  the  creation  of  the  world;  among 
them  were  such  as  were  themselves  truly  created,  and  such  as  were 
decided  upon  before  the  Creation  ;  the  Torah  and  the  throne  of  glory 
were  truly  created."     In  chap.  viii.  of  the  same  Midrash  it  is  said  that 
the  Torah  was  created  2,000  years  before  the  Creation.    In  the  Talmud, 
Zebachim   ii6cz,   an   old   tradition  is  preserved  according  to  which 
Balaam  said  to  the  Gentile  kings  :  "  Jehovah  has  a  precious  jewel  in 
His  treasure-house  which  was    held   hidden   for  nine   hundred   and 
seventy-four  generations  before  the  creation  of  the  world  ;  this  treasure 
He  will  give  to  His  children,  i.e.  the  Israelites."  The  "  precious  jewel" 
is  the  Torah.     The   Israelites  are  called   "the  people  of  the  Law" 
because,  although   it  was  offered  to  all  nations,  only  the    Israelites 
accepted  it  ;  this  is  taught  in  the  Midrash  Pesikta  i86«. 

4  For  a  good  doctrine  .  ,  .:  Quoted  from  Prov.  iv.  2, 


22. l  (24)  "Everything  is  foreseen,2  and  free-will3  is  given";  and 
"The  world  is  judged  by  grace,  yet  all  is  according4  to 
the  abundance  6  of  work." 

23.  (25)   He  used  to  say  :  "  Everything  is  given  as  an  earnest0 (of 

1  Doctrinally  these  two  sayings  are  among  the  most  important  of 
the  whole  tractate.     They  offer  a  striking  example  of  the  sense  of  pro 
portion    in  doctrinal  teaching,  which    is  not   always   conspicuous   in 
Rabbinical  writings.     In  these  writings  the  main  stress  is  usually  laid 
on  free-will  and  the  efficacy  of  works  ;  not  that  divine  providence  and 
grace  are  left  out  of  sight — far  from  that  ;  but  they  occupy  relatively  a 
less  important  position.     R.  Akiba  is  strikingly  sane  and  balanced  in 
his  teaching  here,  following  in  this  respect  Ben-Sira,  and  reminding  one 
of  the  Pauline  teaching  in  such  a  passage  as  Eph.  ii.  S-io:  ".  .  .  for 
we  are   His  workmanship,   created  in  Christ  Jesus  for  good  works, 
which  God  afore  prepared,  that  we  should  walk  in  them  ";  cp.  Rom. 
ii.  6  ;  ix.-xk 

2  foreseen :   >IKJ,  past  part,  from  nns  ;  the   Biblical   sense   is    "  to 
watch"  or  "  to  look  out"  (e.g.  Gen.  xxxi.  49  ;  Prov.  xv.  3)  ;  this  is  also 
frequently  the  meaning  in  neo- Hebrew,  but  in  this  latter  the  extended 
meaning  of  "  foreseeing  "  often  occurs,  e.g.  "every  event  is  foreseen  by 
the  Lord,"  Tanchuma,  Shclach  ix.  (Jastrow). 

:i  free-will:  muh  (rashutJi)  means  ordinarily  "authority,"  as  in  i.  10; 
then  the  authority  that  a  man  has  over  himself,  i.e.  his  free-will.  The 
word  has  also  the  technical  sense  of  "personality"  in  reference  to 
God  in  Rabbinical  literature.  See  further  Weber,  pp.  78  f. 

4  yet  all  is  .  .  .:  Four  MSS.  read  :  "not  according  to  .  .  .";  but  the 
above  is  evidently  the  correct  reading. 

h  abundance:  One  MS.  omits. 

6  Everything  ...  as  an  earnest :  The  meaning  of  this  difficult 
saying  is  in  part  elucidated  by  the  N.T.  passages  in  which  the  word 
for  "earnest"  (pi?  =  a/>pa/3o>f)  occurs,  viz.  2  Cor.  i.  22  :  "...  who  also 
sealed  us,  and  gave  us  the  earnest  of  the  Spirit  in  our  hearts";  v.  5  : 
".  .  .  who  gave  us  the  earnest  of  the  Spirit";  Ephes.  i.  13,  14  :  "...  in 
whom,  having  also  believed,  ye  were  sealed  with  the  Holy  Spirit 
of  promise,  which  is  an  earnest  of  our  inheritance."  In  each  case 
something  is  accorded  which  is  a  pledge,  or  surety,  or  earnest  of 
something  else.  In  the  saying  before  us,  what  is  meant  is  that  every 
thing  which  God  has  accorded  to  man  is  in  itself  a  pledge,  or  surety, 
or  earnest  of  something  else  ;  and  that  something  else  is  a  quid  pro 
quo  from  man.  Every  man  has  received  good  things  from  God,  and 
from  every  man  something  in  return  will,  sooner  or  later,  have  to  be 
given.  The  proof  of  this  lies,  according  to  R.  Akiba,  in  the  nature 

44  ni 

repayment) ;  and  the  net l  is  cast  over  all  the  living. 
The  office2  is  opened,  and  the  broker3  gives  credit;  and 
the  writing-tablet4  is  opened,5  and  the  hand  writes;  and 
everyone  who  desires  to  borrow  comes  and  borrows ;  ° 
and  the  collectors  6  go  round  continually  7  every  day,  and 
exact  payment 8  from  a  man  whether  he  knows  or  not ; 9 

of  all  God's  gifts  to  man.  The  picture  of  the  business-house  with  God 
as  the  broker  in  his  office,  giving  credit  and  exacting  payment  from 
his  creditors,  is,  of  course,  not  to  our  taste.  But  it  should  be  recognised 
that  there  is  a  real  truth  (somewhat  one-sidedly  stated,  it  is  true)  in 
what  is  said,  viz.  that  the  divine  gifts  accorded  to  men  demand  a 
return,  in  some  form  or  other,  from  men ;  and  that  sooner  or  later  that 
return  will  have  to  be  made.  It  is  in  the  nature  of  divine  gifts  that 
they  cannot  be  without  effect  ;  they  are  in  themselves  the  earnest  that 
that  effect  will  be  produced.  This  is  all  one  side  of  the  truth,  and  is 
an  illustration  of  what  R.  Akiba  said  in  the  preceding  saying  :  "all  is 
according  to  the  abundance  of  work."  The  other  side  of  the  truth, 
"the  world  is  judged  by  grace,"  is  subordinated,  as  so  often  by  the 
Rabbis  ;  but  we  are  justified  in  seeing  a  reference  to  it  at  the  end 
of  this  saying  in  the  words  :  "  the  judgement  is  a  judgement  of  truth." 
For  the  Christian  development  of  the  doctrine,  cp.  eg.  i  Cor.  vi.  20  ; 
vii.  23  :  "  Ye  were  bought  with  a  price." 

1  and  the  net .  .  . :  i.e.  what  has  been  said  applies  to  all  without 
exception;  for  the   thought  cp.   Matt.   xiii.   47  ff.:  "The  kingdom  of 
Heaven  is  like  unto  a  net  .  .  ." 

2  the  office  :  i.e.  the  world. 

3  the  hroker  :  i.e.  God. 

4  writing-tablet :  cp:c(=  7ru>a|)  ;  cp.  Luke  i.  63,  TTWIKI&OI/  ;  in  Rab 
binical  literature  this  word  is  generally  used  of  the  "book"  in  which 
a  tradesman  noted  debts  owing  to  him,  so  that  the  expression  "  to 
open  the  writing-tablet"  (Cp:2  nnc)  is  often  -  to  see  what  is  owing 
(Krauss,  in.  145).     In  the  Gospels  irlvat;  has  a  different  meaning  ;  cp 
Matt.  xiv.  8  ;  Luke  xi.  39. 

a  The  words  "and  the  broker  gives  credit  ;  and  the  writing-tablet 
is  opened,"  as  well  as  "  and  everyone  who  desires  to  borrow  comes 
and  borrows,"  are  omitted  by  one  MS. 

(i  the  collectors  :  i.e.  the  angels. 

7  continually:  Two  MSS.  omit. 

*  exact  payment :  When  a  man  does  not  pay  his  due  by  right 
living,  payment  is  exacted  by  calamity,  sickness,  etc.,  byway  of  atone 

9  whether  he  knows  or  not :  i.e.  whether  he  realises  or  not  that 

"i  45 

and  they  have1  that  upon  which  they  rely.2  And  the 
judgement  is  a  judgement  of  truth  ;  and  everything  is 
prepared  for  the  banquet."3 

24.  (26)  Rabbi  Eleazar  ben  Azariah4  said :  "If  (there  be)  no  Torah, 
(there  is)  no  courtesy ; 5  if  (there  be)  no  courtesy,  (there 
is)  no  Torah.  If  (there  be)  no  wisdom,6  (there  is)  no 
fear  (of  God) ;  if  (there  be)  no  fear  (of  God),  (there  is) 
no  wisdom.  If  (there  be)  no  knowledge, .  (there  is)  no 
discernment ;  if  (there  be)  no  discernment,  (there  is) 
no  knowledge.  If  (there  be)  no  corn,7  (there  is)  no 
Torah  ;  if  (there  be)  no  Torah,  (there  is)  no  com." 

his  calamity  or  sickness  is  in  lieu  of  the  debt  he  owes.  That  sickness 
and  death  atone  for  sin  is  often  taught  in  Rabbinical  writings  ;  see  the 
present  writer's  The  Jewish  Doctrine  of  Mediation^  pp.  109  f. 

1  and  they  have  .  .  .  :  i.e.  the  angels  have  the  record  of  debts  in 
the  writing-tablet. 

2  rely  :  lit.  "  lean." 

3  the  banquet :  Bliss   in  the  world   to  come   is  often   spoken  of 
figuratively  as  a  "  banquet"  in  Rabbinical  writings.     The  origin  of  the 
idea,  so  far  as  Judaism  is  concerned,  is  probably  to  he  found  in  such 
passages  as  Zeph.  i.  7  ;    Is.  xxv.  6  ;  it  is  greatly  developed   in   the 
Apocalyptic  literature  ;  see,  e.g.,  Enoch  xxv.  4,  5  ;  Ix.  7,  8  ;  Ixii.  14  ; 
Test.  xii.   Patr.  ;  Levi  xviii.  1 1  ;  Syriac  Apoc.  of  Baruch  xxix.   3-8  ; 
Sib.  Orac.  Prooem.  87,  iii.  746  ;  4  Esdras  vi.  49-52  ;  and  in  Rabbinical 
writings    it    is    still   elaborated;    cp.  also    Matt.    viii.    11  ;    xxvi.    29; 
Rev.  xix.  9. 

4  R.  Eleazar  b.  A.:  Pie  lived  during  the  second  part  of  the  first 
century  A.D.,  and   died   about    120  A.D.     He  was  President   of  the 
Sanhedrin  in  Jabne  after  Gamliel  II.  had  been  deposed. 

5  courtesy:  pa  -pi,  lit.  "way  of  the  earth";  see  note  on  ii.  2  ;  the 
phrase  has  various  meanings,  according  to  its  context.    Here  it  means 
the  courteous  behaviour  which  ought  to  be  shown  to  one's  fellow- 

G  If  (there  be)  no  wisdom  .  .  .:  cp.  Job  xxviii.  28  ;  Ps.  cxi.  10  ; 
Prov.  i.  7  ;  ix.  10  ;  xv.  33  ;  Sir.  i.  14  ;  xxv.  10  ;  Eccles.  xii.  13. 

7  If  (there  be)  no  corn  .  .  .:  lit.  "  meal";  the  words  mean  that  both 
spiritual  and  physical  nourishment  are  needed  ;  cp.  Prov.  ix.  5  and 
Sir.  xv.  3  :  "And  she  (i.e.  Wisdom)  will  feed  him  with  the  bread  of 
understanding,  and  give  him  the  waters  of  knowledge  to  drink." 

46  in 

25.  (27)  He  used  to  say:  "Whosesoever  wisdom  is  greater  than  his 

works,  unto  what  is  he  like?1  To  a  tree  whose  branches 
are  abundant,  but  whose  roots  are  scanty  ;  and  the  wind 
comes,  and  uproots  it,  and  overturns  it.2  And  whosesoever 
works  are  more  abundant  than  his  wisdom,  unto  what 
is  he  like  ?  Unto  a  tree  whose  branches  are  scanty,  and 
whose  roots  are  abundant;  if  all  the  winds  that  are  in 
the  world 3  come  and  blow  upon  it,  they  move  it  not 
from  its  place."  4 

26.  (28)  Rabbi  Eleazar  Chasama5  said:  "(The  teaching  contained 

in)  Kinninf  and  in  the  opening  (sections)  viNiddah?  these 

1  unto  what  is  he  like  ?  :  rran  win  rroS  one  of  the  regular  formulas 
for  introducing  a  comparison  ;  cp.  Luke  xiii.  18. 

?i  overturns  it :  lit.  "turns  it  upon  its  face."  Some  authorities  add: 
"  As  it  is  said  :  He  shall  be  like  a  tamarisk  in  the  desert,  and  shall 
not  see  when  good  cometh  ;  but  shall  inhabit  the  parched  places  in 
the  wilderness,  etc."  (Jer.  xvii.  6).  This  is  in  all  probability  a  later 
addition,  as  it  spoils  the  terse  and  concise  form  of  the  saying. 

3  that  are  in  the  world  :  Omitted  by  two  MSS. 

4  from  its  place  :  Some  authorities  add  :  "  As  it  is  said  :  He  shall 
be  like  a  tree  planted  by  the  waters,  and  that  spreadeth  out  his  roots 
by  the  river,  and  he  feareth  not  when  the  heat  cometh,  and  his  leaf 
shall  be  green,  and  in  the  year  of  drought  he  shall  not  be  careful, 
neither  shall  he  cease  from  yielding  fruit"  (Jer.  xvii.  8).     cp.  with  the 
general  form  and  thought  of  this  saying  Matt.  vii.  24-27. 

r>  R.  Eleazar  Ch.  :  He  lived  at  the  end  of  the  first,  and  first  half  of 
the  second,  century  A.D.  Some  MSS.  insert  "ben"  before  Chasama, 
but  wrongly  (see  Strack  /';/  loc.}.  The  name  Chasama  is  pointed  by 
some  authorities  Chisma,  by  others  Chasma  ;  its  exact  pronunciation 
is  uncertain.  This  saying  is  omitted  by  one  of  the  MSS.;  in  another 
it  is  added  by  a  later  hand  in  the  margin. 

6  Kinnin  .  .  .  Niddah:  The  names  of  Mishnah  tractates,  meaning 
respectively  "Nests"  and  "  Uncleanness  (of  women)";  the  former 
deals  with  the  offerings  of  birds  which  were  brought  by  women  after 
child-birth  ("two  turtle-doves  or  two  young  pigeons,"  Lev.  xii.  8  ;  cp. 
Luke  ii.  24),  and  various  other  cognate  subjects.  The  other  deals 
with  the  whole  subject  of  the  uncleanness  of  women  (Lev.  xv.  19  ff.)  ; 
the  opening  sections  refer  especially  to  the  state  of  women  after  child 
birth.  There  is,  therefore,  a  direct  connexion  between  the  subjects 
dealt  with  in  these  two  tractates.  Why  these  should  have  been 
regarded  as  constituting  the  essentials  of  the  Halakoth  is  possibly 

in-iv  47 

constitute  the  essentials  of  the  Halakoth.1  The  (teaching 
concerning)  astronomical  cycles 2  and  mathematical  prob 
lems3  are  secondary  matters4  of  wisdom." 


i.  (i)  BEN  ZoMA5  said:  "Who  is  wise?     He  that  learns  from 
every  man,   as  it  is  said :   *  From  all  my  teachers    have 

because  they  contain  some  of  the  most  intricate  arguments  and  dis 
cussions  in  the  Mishnah,  so  that  if  a  man  grasps  them  he  can 
grasp  any. 

1  Halakoth:    (One    MS.    reads    "Torah,"    but    wrongly.)      Plur. 
of  Halakah)  from  the  root  halak,  "to  go";  it  means  the  "way"  in 
which  a  man  should  walk  in  accordance  with  legal  directions.     The 
word  is,  therefore,  used  of  the  Law,  which  directs  the  whole  manner 
of  life  of  a  pious  Israelite  ;  and  then  in  the  more  restricted  sense,  as 
here,  of  individual  rules.   See  further  Weber,  pp.  34  ff.,  85  ff.,  91  ff.,  loofT. 

2  astronomical  cycles  :  nsipnt  in  Ps.  xix.  (6)  7  the  word  is  used 
of  the  "circuit"  of  the  sun,  but  in  post-Biblical   Hebrew  it  means 
"  solstice." 

3  mathematical  problems:  "Gematria"  (=yea>/z«rpm).  R.  Eleazar 
is  stated  (in  T.B.  Horajoth  100)  to  have  been  a  great  mathematician 
(Hoffmann).     The  word  "  denotes  an  arithmetical  method  of  exegesis, 
in  which  the  numerical  values  of  the   Hebrew  letters — which,  like  the 
Greek,  are  used  to  denote  numbers — are  taken  into  account.     Thus 
one  word  may  be  substituted  for  another  to  which  it  is  numerically 
equivalent,  as    in    Bereshith   Rabba   Ixviii.,    where   Jacob's   ladder   is 
identified  with  Mount  Sinai^  since  cfe,  'ladder'  (60  +  30  +  40),  is  equal 
to  >rc,  '  Sinai'  (60+  10  +  50+  10)  .  .  ."  (Taylor). 

4  secondary  matters :  The  word  rre-ic  means  lit.  something  "broken 
up,"  and  is  then  applied  to  the  "  dessert "  after  a  meal,  when  broken 
almonds    and    sweetmeats    were   served  ;    it   thus    means    something 
pleasant  and  enjoyable,  but  not  essential.     The  word  comes  from  the 
root  TID  (pilpel},  meaning  "to  crush"  (e.g.  of  crumbling  a  hard-boiled 
egg  over  fish),  and  has  nothing  to  do  with  "fringes,"  as  though  the 
word  were  a  Hebraised  form  of  7rept$epfta>  "circumference." 

5  Ben  Zoma  :  He  lived  at  the  end  of  the  first,  and  former  half  of  the 
second,  century  A.D.,  and  was  a  younger  contemporary  of  R.  Akiba. 
His  full  name  was  Simeon  b.  Zoma.     He  was  a  great  mystic  and 
theosophist,  of  whom  it  is  said  that  he  both  "  looked,  and  became, 

(2)  I    got    understanding.'1       Who   is    mighty?      He    that 
masters  his  nature,2  as  it  is  said  :   '  He  that  is  slow  to 
anger  is  better  than  the  mighty  ;  and  he  that  ruleth  his 

(3)  spirit  than  he  that  taketh  a  city.'3     Who  is  rich?     He 
that  is  contented  with  his  lot,  as  it  is  said :  *  When  thou 
eatest  the  labour  of  thy  hands,  happy  art  thou,  and  it 
shall  be  well  with  thee. ' 4     *  Happy  art  thou  J  in  this  world, 
'  and  it  shall  be  well  with  thee '  in  the  world  to  come. 

(4)  Who  is  honoured?     He  that  honours  all  men,5  as  it  is 
said :   '  For   them    that    honour  Me   I   will  honour,  and 
they  that  despise  Me  shall  be  lightly  esteemed.' "  6 

2.  (5)  Ben  Azzai7  said:  "Run  to8  a  precept  9  (however)  small;10 
but  flee  from  transgression.11  For  precept  leads  to12 
precept,  and  transgression  leads  to  transgression  ; 13  for  the 

demented"  (quoted  by  Taylor)  ;  this  must  have  been  after  he  uttered 
the  saying  before  us,  one  of  the  wisest  ever  put  forth.  The  proof-texts 
here,  with  one  exception,  are  thoroughly  appropriate,  but  they  some 
what  detract  from  the  terse  forcefulness  of  the  words. 

1  From  all .  .  .:  Adapted  from  Ps.  cxix.  99. 

2  nature  :   Yetzer\  see  note  on  ii.  14. 

3  He  that  is  slow  .  .  .:  Quoted  from  Prov.  xvi.  32. 

4  When  thou  eatest .  .  .:  Quoted  from  Ps.  cxxviii.  2. 
r>  all  men  :  lit.  "mankind"  (nran)  ;  see  note  on  i.  12. 

6  For  them  that  honour.  .  .:  Quoted  from  i  Sam.  ii.  30,  where 
these  words  are  put  into  the  mouth  of  God  ;  the  text  is  inappropriate, 
but  it  contains  the  essential  word  "honour." 

7  Ben  Azzai:  His  full  name  was  Simeon  ben  A.;  a  contemporary 
of  Ben  Zoma.     Note  that  neither  Ben  A.  nor  Ben  Z.  is  jnven  the  title 
"  Rabbi." 

8  Run  to  .  .  .:  i.e.  for  the  purpose  of  fulfilling-  it. 

9  precept :  lit.  "  commandment." 

10  small :  lit.  "  light."     One  authority  wrongly  adds  :  "  as  towards 
a  weighty  one." 

11  flee  from  transgression:  cp.  i  Cor.  vi.  18  :  "Flee  fornication"; 
i  Cor.  x.  14  :  "  Flee  from  idolatry";  2  Tim.  ii.  22  :  "Flee  also  youthful 

12  leads  to  :  i.e,  brings  in  its  train. 

•'  trangression  leads    to  .  .  . :    cp.    Schiller's    words,   Die   beiden 
Ficcolomini,  act  v.,  sc.  i  : 

"  This  is  the  curse  of  every  evil  deed, 
That  it  begets  a  further  deed  of  shame." 

rv  49 

reward  of  precept  is  precept,  and  the  reward  of  trans 
gression  is  transgression." 

3.  (6)  He  used  to  say  :    "  Despise  no  man,  nor  deem  aught l 

impossible  ;  for  thou  wilt  see 2  that  there  is  no  man  but 
has  his  day,3  nor  anything 4  that  has  not  its  place." 

4.  (7)  Rabbi  Levitas  5  of  Jabneh  said:   "Be  very  lowly  of  spirit, 

for  man's  expectation  is  but  worms."  6 

5.  Rabbi  Jochanan 7  ben  Berokah  said:   "Whosoever  profanes 

the  name  of  God8  in  secret  they9  punish  him  openly  ; 10 
it  is  one  whether,11  in  profaning  the  Name,  a  man  do  it 
unintentionally  ]'2  or11  of  set  purpose."13 

1  nor  deem  aught  .  .  .  :  The  word  means  lit.  putting  something  in 
the  far  distance. 

2  thou  wilt  see  .  .  .:  lit.  "there  is  not  to  thee'?;  the  original  must 
be  paraphrased. 

3  day:  lit.  "hour." 

4  nor  anything  .  .  .:  cp.  Eccles.  iii.  1-8. 

5  R.    Levitas  .  .  .  :     Presumably   a   contemporary    of    R.    Akiba  ; 
nothing  is  known  of  him  personally,  though  some  sayings  of  his  are 
preserved  in  Pirke  de  Rabbi  Eliezer  (see  Gerald  Friedlander's  edition, 
pp.  169,  422,  434).     In  one  MS.  the  words  of  the  next  verse,  "Whoso 
ever  profanes  .  .  ."  are  erroneously  inserted  here. 

6  Be   very   lowly  .  .  .:  cp.   verse   12.      This  saying   is   an  inexact 
quotation  from  Sir.  vii.  17  :"  Humble  altogether  thy  pride,  for  man's 
expectation  is  worms";  cp.  iii.  3  ;  Job  xiv.  19  ;  Prov.  xi.  23;  Enoch 
xlvi.  6. 

7  R.  Jochanan  .  .  .:  He  lived  at  the  end  of  the  first,  and  former  half 
of  the  second,  century  A.D. 

8  God  :  lit.  "  Heaven." 

9  they  :  i.e.  God  ;  "  they  "  is  frequently  used  in  this  way  in  Rab 
binical  writings  ;  cp.  Luke  xvi.  9  :   "...  that,  when  it  shall  fail,  they 
may  receive  you  into  the  eternal  tabernacles." 

10  secret.  .  .  openly:  cp.  2  Sam.  xii.   12  ;   Eccles.  xii.    14  ;   Luke 
viii.  17. 

11  it  is  one  whether  .  .  .  or  .  .  .  :  This  use  of  tn»  •  •  •  TIN  is  Rab 
binical,  not  Biblical. 

12  a  man  do  it  unintentionally  :  a;ri  =  "to  do  wrong  inadvertently." 

13  of  set  purpose  :  -n  =  "  to  act  with  premeditation."     The  profana 
tion  of  the  Name  of  God  was  an  unforgivable  sin,  whether  committed 

5°  IV 

6.  (8)  Rabbi  Ishmael,1  his  son,  said  :  "  He  that  learns  in  order2 

to  teach,  they  3  fully  grant  to  him  4  the  faculty  of  learning 
and  teaching ; b  and  he  that  learns  in  order  that  he  may 
accomplish,6  they  fully  grant  him  the  faculty  of  learning 
and  teaching  5  and  accomplishing." 

7.  (9)  Rabbi  Zadok7said:  "Make  them  not8  a  crown  to  glory  in,9 

intentionally  or  not  ;  if  done  without  utterance,  in  the  heart,  it  was 
considered  as  equally  sinful,  and  punished  by  God,  if  not  by  man, 
according  to  R.  Jochanan  ;  but  in  Sanhedrin  vii.  5  it  is  said  that  "the 
blasphemer  is  not  punishable  unless  he  pronounces  the  name  openly." 
It  was,  however,  regarded  as  a  profanation  of  the  name  of  God  even 
to  utter  the  "  Tetragrammaton  "  (mrr),  which  was  only  pronounced  by 
the  high-priest  when  giving  the  blessing  in  the  Temple  on  the  Day 
of  Atonement  (cp.  Youia  vi.  2).  This  name  is  known  as  the  nrnonn  cu? 
(Shem  ha-mephoresh],  the  true  meaning  of  which  is  uncertain  ;  the 
root  means  "to  separate,"  and  also  "to  explain"  or  "specify";  it 
might,  therefore,  mean  the  name  that  is  separate  from  all  other  names, 
or  the  name  which  explains  the  being  of  the  Deity,  or  the  name 
which  specifies  the  Deity.  Taylor  (p.  56)  refers  to  Wisdom  xiv.  21, 
TO  aKoivwrjTov  oVo/ia,  "  the  incommunicable  name  ";  the  context,  how 
ever,  shows  that  it  is  not  the  "Tetragrammaton"  as  such  that  is  here 
referred  to,  but  simply  that  the  name  of  Israel's  one  God  must  not  be 
shared  by  any  other  god. 

1  R.  Ishmael :  He  lived  during  the  middle  of  the  second  century 
A.D. ;  "his  son  "  is  omitted  by  two  MSS. 

2  in   order:   mv-7s  "on  condition  that,"  "for  the  sake  of,"  often 
abbreviated  to  n'y.     The  word  n:o  means  lit.  "  share,"  or  "  that  which 
is  appointed  "  to  someone.     The  learning  and  teaching  refer  to  the 

3  they  :  i.e.  God. 

4  to  him:  lit.  "to  his  hand";  for  the  phrase  *va  men,  cp.  I  Kings 
xx.  10. 

6  teaching  (2)  :  Some  authorities  add  "  and  observing,"  i.e.  Torah 

U  accomplish  :  i.e.  works  of  Torah. 

7  B.  Zadok  :  He  lived  during  the  first  century  A.D.,  while  the  Temple 
was    still  standing,  and  was  thus  a  contemporary  of  Jochanan  ben 

8  Make   them  not :   i.e.  the  words  of  the   Torah  ;   another,  less 
authoritative,  reading  is  :  "  Make  it"  (the  Torah).     The  saying  means 
that  a  man  must  not  use  the  Torah  for  selfish  ends. 

9  to  glory  in  :  lit.  "  wherewith  to  glorify  thyself." 

iv  51 

nor  a  spade  to  dig  with.''1  And  in  the  same  way - 
Hillel3  said:  "And  he  who  uses4  the  Crown  to  his  own 
advantage  will  perish."  Behold,5  whosoever  profits  6  by 
the  words  of  the  Torah  removes  his  life  from  the  world.7 

8.  (10)  Rabbi  Jose8  said:    "Whosoever  honours  the  Torah  is 

himself9  honoured  by  all  men,10  and  whosoever  dishonours 
the  Torah  is  himself  dishonoured  by  all  men." 

9.  (i  i)  Rabbi  Ishmael,11  his  son,12  said  :  "  He  that  refrains  from 

acting  as  judge  13  frees  himself  from  enmity,14  and  theft,15 

1  a  spade  to  dig  with  :  nnp  ("  spade  ")  occurs  rarely  in  the  O  T. 
(i  Sam.  xiii.  20;  Ps.  Ixxiv.  5,  "axe"),  but  more  often  in  later  Hebrew  ; 
it  was  really  a  combination  of  a  spade  and  an  axe,  one  arm  consisting 
of  a  broad  blade  like  a  hatchet,  the  other  being  pointed  ;  so  that  it  is 
spoken  of  as  being  used  for  cleaving  wood  and  also  for  breaking  up 
the  soil  (see  Nowack,  Hebrdische  Archaologie,  i.  246  ;  Krauss,  ii.  642  ; 
and  for  other  references  Jastrow,  s.v.}.  Another  reading,  less  authori 
tative,  is  :  "a  dish  to  eat  of,"  which  alters  the  metaphor,  but  not  the 

a  in  the  same  way:  -p  "thus"  =  rD3  in  the  O.T.,  Exod.  xii. 
11,  etc. 

3  Hillel:  See  i.  12. 

4  he  who  uses  .  .  .  :  See  i.  13  and  note. 

5  Behold  .  .  .:  Probably  a  later  inseriion  ;  the  readings  vary. 
G  whosoever  profits  :  Reading  rnnsn-k. 

7  from  the  world  :  See  note  on  ii.  14. 

8  B.  Jose  :  Usually  referred  to  as  R.  Jose  ben  Chalaphta  ;  he  lived 
during  the  greater  part  of  the  second  century  A.D. 

9  himself:  IBIS,  lit.  "his  body"  or  "his  person." 

10  all  men:  rrra  ;  see  note  on  "men,"  i.  12. 

11  R.  Ishmael  :  He  lived  during  the  second  part  of  the  second,  and 
beginning  of  the  third,  century.     AN  has  "Bar  Kappara";  one  MS. 
reads  "  Rabbi  Simeon." 

12  his  son  :  Two  authorities  omit. 

13  from  acting  as  judge  :  lit.  "  from  judgement." 

14  from  enmity  :  because  the  party  against  whom  he  pronounces 
judgement  becomes  his  enemy. 

15  theft :    because  by  an  error  of  judgement  he  may  condemn   an 
innocent  man  to  pay. 

E    2 

52  IV 

and  false  swearing  j1  and  he  that  is  arrogant2  in  (giving 
a)  derision3  is  foolish,4  wicked,  and  headstrong."- 

10.  (12)  He  used  to  say  :  "  Judge  not  alone,5  for  none  may  judge 
alone  save  One  "  ;  6  and  "  Say  not :  *  Accept  ye  7  my 
opinion,'  for  (while)  they  are  free8  (to  say  this),  thou  art 

n.  (13)  Rabbi  Jonathan9  said:  "Whosoever  fulfils  the  Torah 
(when)  in  poverty 10  will  in  the  end  fulfil  it  in  wealth ;  and 
whosoever  neglects  the  Torah  (when)  in  wealth  will  in  the 
end  neglect  it  in  poverty." 

1  false  swearing :  because  he  may,  though  unwillingly,  be  the 
cause  of  making  a  witness  perjure  himself. 

-  he  that  is  arrogant  .  .  .  headstrong  :  iab  c:n,  lit.  "  haughty  as  to 
his  heart";  rmb  on,  lit.  "haughty  as  to  his  spirit/''  The  root  (no:)  means 
"  to  be  big,"  and  then  is  used  of  one  who  makes  himself  big,  i.e.  haughty. 

3  decision:  rwrn,  not  "teaching"  here  ;  the  context  shows  that  the 
word  is  used  in  its  technical  sense  of  a  judicial  decision. 

4  foolish  :  The  root  >sir>  means  usually  "to  be  demented." 

5  Judge  not  alone  :  In  chap.  i.  of  the  Mishnic  tractate  Sanhedrin 
the  rules  are  recorded  giving  the  number  of  judges  who  presided  over 
the   different   tribunals.      For   the    provincial   courts   three  was    the 
minimum  ;  seven,  and,   in  certain  cases,  twenty-three,  wrere  recom 
mended  ;  in  the  great  Sanhedrin  there  had  to  be  seventy-one. 

6  save  One:    See  Gen.  xviii.  25  ;  Ps.  Ixxv.  7  ;  Is.  xxxiii.   22  ;    c/>. 
2  Tim.  iv.  8  ;  Hebr.  xii.  23. 

7  Say  not :  'Accept  ye  .  .  . :  No  single  judge  was  allowed  to  try  to 
assert  himself  against  his  colleagues. 

8  they  are  free  .  .  .:  Where  a  majority  were  agreed  they  were  free 
to  try  to  induce  one  dissentient  to  agree  with  them,  but  not  vice  versa. 

<J  R.  Jonathan  :  This  is  in  all  probability  the  right  reading  ;  two 
authorities  read  "  R.  Jochanan,"  and  one  has  "  R.  Nathan."  Accord 
ing  to  AN  30,  this  Rabbi  is  R.  Jonathan,  the  son  of  Joseph,  a  pupil 
of  R.  Akiba.  not  the  R.  Jonathan  the  pupil  of  R.  Ishmael,  who  is  never 
mentioned  in  the  Mishnah  (Hoffmann)  ;  nevertheless,  it  is  probably 
this  latter  who  is  meant  here  ;  he  lived  during  the  middle  portion  of 
the  second  century  A.D. 

J°  in  poverty:  ^  ;  for  this  use  of  p  (lit.  "  from  ")  cp.  Jer.  xxxi.  13 
(Strack)  ;  in  Rabbinical  writings  it  often  has  the  sense  of  "  when."  It 
is  also  grammatically  possible  to  translate  "because  of  poverty";  but 
the  general  sense  of  the  saying  requires  the  former  rendering  ;  cp. 
Luke  vi.  21,  25  (Taylor). 

iv  53 

12.  (14)  Rabbi  Meir1  said:  "Do  little  business,  but  be  busy  with 

the  Torah  "  ;  and  "  Be  lowly  of  spirit 2  before  all  men  "  ; 
and  "  If  thou  hast  been  idle  (in  regard  to)  the  Torah, 
many  idle  things  3  will  stand  in  thy  way ;  but  if  thou 
labourest  in  the  Torah,  He4  hath  much  reward  to  give  thee." 

13.  (15)  Rabbi  Eliezer  ben  Jacob5  said:  "He  who  fulfils  one  pre 

cept  (of  the  Torah)  gains  for  himself  one  advocate,0  and  he 
who  commits  one  transgression  (against  the  Torah)  gains 
for  himself  one  accuser.7  Repentance 8  and  good  works 
are  as  a  shield9  against  punishment."10 

1  R.  Meir :  The  greatest  of  R.  Akiba's  disciples  ;  he  lived  during 
the  middle  portion  of  the  second  century  A.D. 

2  Be  lowly  of  spirit :  cp.  Matt.  xi.  29  ;  see  verse  4. 

3  many  idle  things  :  The  idle  mind  is  easily  distracted  by  trifles, 
and  therefore  becomes  unfit  to   concentrate  itself  on   more   serious 
thought.     AN  understands  the  reference  to  be  to  "  idle  persons." 

4  He  :  i.e.  God. 

5  E.  Eliezer  b.   J.  :  He  lived  in   the  second   half  of  the    second 
century  A.D.  ;  a  disciple  of  R.  Akiba  ;  another  of  the  same  name,  a 
disciple  of  R.  Jochanan  b.  Zakkai,  lived  a  little  earlier. 

6  advocate  :  E^PE  =  Trapa/cAr/ros,  a  Johannine  word  ;  cp.  John  xiv. 
1 6,  26  ;  xv.  26  ;  xvi.  7  ;   I  John  ii.  i. 

7  accuser  :  -na^p  =  Kar^yopos ;  cp.  Rev.  xii.  10. 

8  Repentance  .  .  .  :    cp.   verse   22.      The   teaching   on    repentance 
Teshubah}  occupies  a  prominent  position  in  Rabbinical  writings  ;  it 

is  very  often  coupled  with  good  works,  one  implying  the  other.  Thus 
it  is  said  in  the  Talmud  that  three  books  are  opened  on  New  Year's 
Day  :  the.  righteous  are  inscribed,  in  one  of  these,  for  life  ;  the  wicked, 
in  another,  for  death  ;  while  the  intermediate,  those  who  are  neither 
good  nor  bad,  remain  in  suspense  until  the  Day  of  Atonement.  By 
repentance  and  good  works  they  can  make  the  swaying  balance  incline 
in  their  favour  (Rosh  ha-Shana  \*]  b,  Yebamoth  105  a}.  In  the  Midrash, 
Shemoth  Rabba  xii.  4,  it  is  said  :  "  God  says,  My  hands  are  stretched 
towards  the  penitent  ;  I  thrust  no  one  back  who  gives  Me  his  heart  in 
repentance."  In  another  Midrash,  Shir  Rabba  v.  2,  it  is  said  :  "Open 
for  Me  a  gateway  of  repentance  as  big  as  a  needle's  eye,  and  I  will 
open  for  you  gates  wide  enough  for  chariots  and  horses"  (cp.  Matt. 
xix.  24  ;  Luke  v.  32). 
!)  shield :  onn  =  Qvpfus ;  cp.  Eph.  vi.  16. 

10  punishment :   rn:niE,  used  mostly  of  divine  retribution  ;  a  non- 
Biblical  word. 

54  iv 

i4-  (16)  Rabbi  Jochanan  1  the  Sandal-maker  said  :  "  Every  assem 
bly2  that  (meets)  in  the  name  of  Heaven3  shall  in  the  end 
be  established ;  and  every  (assembly)  that  (meets)  not  in 
the  name  of  Heaven  shall  in  the  end  not  be  established." 

15.  (17)  Rabbi  Eleazar  4  said  :  "Let  the  honour  of  thy  disciple  be 

as  dear  to  thee  as  the  honour  of  thy  associate,5  and  the 
honour  of  thy  associate  as  the  reverence  for  thy  teacher, 
and  the  reverence  for  thy  teacher  as  the  fear  of  Heaven." 

16.  (18)  Rabbi  Jehudah  6  said  :  "  Be  careful  in  the  study  (of  the 

Torah),  for  error  in  the  study7  (of  the  Talmud)  amounts 
to  sin."8 

1  E.  Jochanan  .  .  .:  He  lived  in  the  middle  of  the  second  century 
A.D.  ;  a  native  of  Alexandria,  he  became  a  disciple  of  R.  Akiba.  His 
worldly  occupation,  combined  with  Torah-study,  recalls  the  word  of 
Rabbi'  Gamliel  in  ii.  2  ;  cp*  St.  Paul's  Torah-study  (Acts  xxii.  3) 
with  his  worldly  occupation  (Acts  xviii.  3).  The  sandal-maker 
(-1^:0  =  o-ai/SuAupios1)  was  quite  distinct  from  the  shoemaker  (MBS^M)  ; 
both  callings  were  held  in  respect,  and  several  Rabbis  are  mentioned 
as  having  combined  them  with  their  Torah-study.  See  further  Krauss, 
i.  pp.  176  f.,  619. 

-  assembly  :  HD^D  (Kenisah} ;  though  used  of  assemblies  in  general, 
especially  in  the  Targums,  the  word  is  mostly  applied  to  religious 
meetings  ;  the  regular  name  for  a  synagogue  is  no^rr  m  (beth  ha- 
Keneseth\  "house  of  meeting." 

3  Heaven:  One  MS. and ^^40  read  mso  ("command"  or  "duty") 
each  time. 

4  R.  Eleazar:    Some  authorities  read  "Eliezer";   one  MS.   adds 
"  ben  Shammua."     He  was  a  disciple  of  R.  Akiba,  and  lived  during 
nearly  the  whole  of  the  second  century  A.D. 

5  thy  associate:  One  MS.  reads,  wrongly,   "as  thine  own";    cp. 
ii.  13. 

6  R.  Jehudah:  Spoken  elsewhere  as  "ben  Illai  ";  he  was  a  con 
temporary  of  R.  Eleazar,  and  likewise  a  disciple  of  R.  Akiba. 

7  in  the  study:  lit.  "in  the  Talmud":  but  this  word,  which  means 
"learning,"  had,  of  course,  not  yet  received  the  technical  sense  in 
which   it  has  since  been  used,  viz.  as  the  combined   Mishnah  and 
(leinara  (lit.  "completion"). 

5  amounts  to  sin :  chiefly  because  it  may  involve  the  handing  on 
of  erroneous  teaching. 



i7-  (19)  Rabbi  Simeon1  said:  "There  are  three  crowns:  the 
crown  of  Torah,2  the  crown  of  priesthood,3  and  the 
crown  of  kingship  ;4  but  the  crown  of  a  good  name5  rises 
above  them  all." 

1 8.  (20)  Rabbi  Nehorai 6  said:  "  Be  a  wanderer 7  to  a  place  of  the 
Torah s — and  say  not  that  it  shall  come  after  thee  9 — for 
(it  is)  thy  associates 10  (who)  will  make  it  enduring  n  unto 
thee,  '  and  lean  not  upon  thine  own  understanding.'  "  12 

1  E.  Simeon :  ben  Jochai  ;  see  iii.  4. 

2  the  crown  of  Torah :   See  Lev.  xix.  32  ;   cp.  i.  13  ;   iv.  7  ;   Prov. 
iv.  9- 

3  the  crown  of  priesthood :  cp.  Lev.  viii.  9  ;  xxi.  8  ;  i  Pet.  ii.  9. 

4  the  crown  of  kingship  :  cp.  Deut.  xvii.  15. 

5  the  crown  of  a  good  name :  cp.  Prov.  xxii.  i  ;  Eccles.  vii.  i  ;  and 
especially  Sir.  xli.  12,  13  :  "Be  in  fear  of  thy  name,  for  that  abideth 
longer  for  thee  than  thousands  of  treasures  of  wisdom  ;  life's  goods 
(last)  for  limited  days,  but  the  reward  of  a  name  for  days  without 
number"  (Hebrew). 

6  R.  Nehorai :  He  lived  probably  during  the  second  half  of  the 
second  century  A.D.  ;  he  is  rarely  mentioned,  and  practically  nothing 
is  known  of  him. 

7  Be  a  wanderer  .  .  .  :  i.e.  if  in  your  own  home  there  is  no  Torah- 
teaching.     The  word  rfo  means  to  go  into  captivity,  the  root  significa 
tion  being  "to  be  uncovered,"  and  thus  it  is  use'd  of  a  land  being  made 
bare  of  its  inhabitants  ;  then  in  an  extended  use  of  leaving  home,  or 
going  into  exile. 

8  a  place  of  the  Torah  :  i.e.  a  place  where  the  Torah  is  taught. 

9  and  say  not  .  .  .  thee  :  These  words  are  parenthetic  ;  the  mean 
ing  is  that  if  a  man  lives  in  a  place  where  there  is  no  Torah  taught 
and  should  therefore  wander  forth  in  search  of  such  a  place,  he  must 
do  this  because  the  Torah  (i.e.  those  who  can  teach  it)  will  not  come 
to  him. 

10  for  (it  is)  thy  associates  .  .  .  :   i.e.  it  is  by  studying  in  company 
with  others  (cp.  i.  6)  that  the  intricacies  of  the  Torah  are  examined 
and  understood,  and  this  is  what  makes  it  of  enduring  value  to  its 

11  will  make  it  enduring :  The  root  n»p  is  used  of  such  things  as 
an  enduring  name,  a  vow  that  is  permanently  valid,  or  of  the  decrees 
of  Moses,  which  endure  for  ever. 

12  and  lean  .  .  .:  Quoted  from  Prov.  iii.  5. 

56  iv 

i<).  (21)  Rabbi  Jannai1  said:  "We  are  unable  to  explain2  either  the 
prosperity  of  the  wicked  or  the  afflictions  of  the  righteous." 

20.  (22)  Rabbi  Mathiah  ben  Charash3  said  :  "Be  first  in  greeting4 

every  man " ;  and  "  Be  a  tail  to  lions,  and  not  a  head 
to  foxes."5 

21.  (23)  Rabbi  Jacob6  said  :  "This  world  is  like  the  vestibule7  of 

the  world  to  come  ;8  prepare  thyself  in  the  vestibule  that 
thou  mayest  enter  into  the  banqueting-hall."s 

22.10  (24)  He  used  to  say:  "Better  is  one  hour  (spent)  in  repentance 

1  R.  Jannai :  cp.  iii.  10  and  notes  ;  though  it  is  possible  that  this 
Jannai  is  not  the  father  of  R.  Dosthai,  who  lived  early  in  the  second 
century,  but  the  Amora  ("  Interpreter  "  of  the  Law)  of  the  same  name 
who  lived  a  century  or  so  later.     Scholars  vary  on  the  point. 

2  We  are  unable  to  explain:  lit.  "(it  is)  not  in  our  hand";  the 
saying   might   mean:  "We   are   not   responsible  for,  etc.";    but    the 
rendering  given  above  is  probably  correct.     Hoffmann  aptly  quotes 
the  phrase  from  T.B.  Chullin  \$a\  ^mr  TI  n,  "this  is  known  to  us," 
lit.  "this  is  in  our  hands." 

3  E.  Mathiah  b.  C.:  The  spelling  varies  in  the  MSS.  ;  for  Charash 
cp.  i  Chron.  ix.  15  (Cheresh).    He  lived  in  Rome  during  the  early  and 
middle  parts  of  the  second  century  A.D. 

4  in  greeting:  lit.  "to  peace";  cp.  Matt.  x.  13;  Luke  x.  5  ;  etc. 

5  Be   a  tail .  .  . :  i.e.  Be  a  follower  of  wise  men,  not  a  leader  of 
mischievous  rogues.     In  the  Jerusalem  Talmud  (Sanhedrin  iv.  22  b] 
we  are  told  of  a  Rabbi  who  reversed  this  saying,  viz.  "  Be  a  head  to 
foxes,  and  not  a  tail  to  lions";  either  maxim  is  apropos,  according  to 

6  R.  Jacob  :  He  lived  in  the  second  half  of  the  second  century  A.D. 

'  the  vestibule  :  i-mrc,  formed  from  the  gen.  of  ^  irpoa-Tas  (Trpoora- 
Sos}.     Another  reading  is  TnrrE  =  ^poQvpov  ("porch"). 

8  the  world  to  come  :  See  note  on  ii.  7. 

!)  the  banqueting-hall :  ^p-c  =  T/oiJcAii/oy  ;  see  note  on  iii.  23  ;  cp. 
Luke  xxiv.  30. 

9  This  paradoxical  saying  may  be  paraphrased  thus  :  A  man  can 
only  in  this  world  prepare  himself  for  the  world  to  come  by  means  of 
repentance  and  good  works  ;  so  that  if  it  were  not  for  this  world,  there 
could,  for  him,  be  no  question  of  the  world  to  come  ;  nevertheless,  as 
compared  with  the  happiness  of  the  world  to  come,  this  world  is  as 

IV  57 

and  good  works1  in  this  world  than  all  of  the  life  in  the 
world  to  come ;  (yet)  better  is  one  hour  of  refreshment 
of  spirit  in  the  world  to  come  than  all  the  life  of  this 

23.  (25)  Rabbi  Simeon  ben  Eleazar  2  said  :  "Seek  not  to  pacify3 

thy  associate  in  the  hour  of  his  wrath;  nor  to  comfort  him 
when  his  dead  (friend)  is  laid  out  before  him ;  nor 
question  him  4  at  the  time  of  his  (making  a)  vow ;  nor 
strive  to  see  him  in  the  hour  of  his  disgrace."  5 

24.  (26)  Samuel  the  Small6  said:  '"Rejoice  not  when  thine  enemy 

falleth,  and  let  not  thy  heart  be  glad  when  he  stumbleth, 
lest  the  Lord  see  it,  and  it  is  evil  in  His  eyes,  and  He  turn 
away  His  wrath  from  him.'"7 

25.  (27)  Elisha  ben  Abujah  s  said  :   "  He  who  learns  as  a  lad,  to 

1  repentance  and  good  works  :  See  note  on  verse  1 3 . 

2  R.  Simeon  b.  E.:  He  lived  during  the  latter  part  of  the  second, 
and  early  part  of  the  third,  century  A.D.     His  father  was  the  Eleazar 
mentioned  in  verse  15.     He  was  a  disciple  of  R.  Meir. 

3  Seek  not  to  pacify  :  This  is  the  force  of  the  form  of  the  verb  here 
used  (nan). 

4  nor  question  him  .  .  .:  i.e.  as  to  whether  he  is  wise  in  making  the 
vow  ;  or  else  as  to  whether  he  will  be  able  to  keep  it. 

5  disgrace:  or  "humiliation,"  u  dishonour";    whether  through  his 
own  fault  or  that  of  others. 

6  Samuel  the  Small :   So  called  on  account  of  his  humility  ;  he 
lived   during   the   first    century    A.D.  ;    see  further   on   him  Herford, 
Christianity  in  Talmud  and  Midrash,  pp.  127-135. 

7  Rejoice  not.  .  .:  Quoted  from  Prov..  xxiv.   17,   18.    The  MSS. 
vary  slightly. 

&  Elisha  b.  A.:  He  lived  at  the  end  of  the  first,  and  during  the  first 
half  of  the  second,  century  A.D.;  the  teacher  of  R.  Meir.  A  strange 
but  interesting  personality,  he  was  at  first  ardent  and  orthodox,  but 
later  he  developed  heretical  views  ;  in  what  particular  direction  his 
heterodoxy  tended  is  uncertain  ;  scholars  differ  on  the  subject,  some 
believing  that  he  became  a  Gnostic,  others  that  he  was  a  follower 
of  Philo,  while  yet  others  hold  that  he  became  a  Christian.  Although 
honoured  by  the  Rabbis  for  his  learning,  they  regarded  him  with 
horror,  and  he  is  generally  referred  to  as  dabar  acher,  "  the  other 
thing";  see  further  L.  Ginzberg  \\\JE  v,  1386^ 

58  iv 

what  is  he  like  ? !  (He  is  like)  unto  ink  2  written  on  new 
paper.3  And  he  who  learns  when  old,  to  what  is  he  like  ? 
(He  is  like)  unto  ink  written  on  paper  which  has  been 

26.  (28)  Rabbi  Jose5  ben  Jehudah  of  Kephar  ha-Babli6  said:  "He 

who  learns  from  the  young,  to  what  is  he  like?  (He  is 
like)  unto  one  that  eats  unripe  grapes,7  and  drinks  wine 
out  of  his  vat.8  And  he  who  learns  from  the  old,  to  what 
is  he  like  ?  (He  is  like)  unto  one  that  eats  ripe  grapes,0 
and  drinks  old  wine." 

27.  (29)  Rabbi10  said:  "Regard  not  the  pitcher,  but  what  is  there 

in  ;  there  is  a  new  pitcher  full  of  old  (wine),  and  there  is 
an  old  (pitcher)  in  which  there  is  not  even  new  (wine)."11 

1  to  what  .  .  .:  For  the  phrase  cp.  iii.  25. 

-  ink:  an  (dejo)\  cp.  Jer.  xxxvi.  18,  from  the  root  rm,  "to  flow 
slowly";  it  was  made  by  mixing  soot  (gained  by  burning  olive-oil  and 
letting  it  smoke  on  to  glass,  which  was  then  scraped)  with  a  little  oil  ; 
this  was  then  left  in  the  sun  to  dry  ;  when  the  resulting  hard  black 
substance  was  required  for  writing  it  was  moistened  with  a  little  olive- 
oil,  and  so  became  slightly  fluid.  See  further  Krauss,  iii.  148  f. 

3  paper:  ~n  (nejar\  lit.  "fibre,"  of  which  this  "paper"  was  manu 
factured  ;  not  papyrus,  as  Krauss  has  shown  (iii.  146  f.). 

4  paper  which  has  been  rubbed :  prra  ;  cp.  the  use  of  the  word  in 
Shabbath  vii.  2  :    "...  he  who  rubs  out  in  order  to  write  over  the 
erasure"  (Jastrow).     Taylor  refers  to  ^A^xxiii.  saying  :  "  Learning  in 
youth  is  also  likened  to  graving  upon  stone,  and  learning  in  old  age 
to  tracing  characters  upon  the  sand." 

5  R.  Jose  .  .  .:  He  lived  during  the  second  half  of  the  second,  and 
early  part  of  the  third,  century. 

c  Kephar  ha-Babli :  A  village  in  Galilee. 

7  unripe  grapes  :  cp.  Ezek.  xviii.  2. 

8  wine  out  of  his  vat :  i.e.  wine  not  yet  forty  days  old ;  cp.  Eduyotk 
vi.  i,  where  it  is  said  that  wine  must  have  been  in  the  vat  for  at  least 
forty  days  before  it  could  be  used  for  the  altar  as  a  libation. 

!)  ripe  grapes  :  cp.  Joel  iv.  13. 

10  Rabbi :  See  note  on  ii.  i. 

11  Regard  not.  .  .:  In  contrast  to  the  preceding  saying,  this  one 
teaches  that  it  is  not  the  age  of  a  teacher,  but  how  much  he  knows, 
that  matters. 

!7  59 

28.  (30)  Rabbi  Eleazar l  ha-Kappar2  said:  "Jealousy,  and  lust, 

and  ambition  drive  a  man3  out  of  the  world." 

29.  (31)  He  used  to  say  :  "Those  who  are  born  4  (are  destined)  to 

die,  and  those  who  are  dead  to  live  again,5  and  those  who 
live  (after  death) 6  to  be  judged ;  that  one  may  know,7 
and  make  known,  and  that  it  be  known,  that  God,  He  is 
the  framer,  He  is  the  creator,  He  is  the  discerner,8  He  is 
the  judge,  He  is  the  witness,  He  is  the  accuser;9  and 
that  He  shall  judge  in  the  hereafter,10  before  whom  there 
is  no  wrong-doing  and  no  forgetting,  and  no  respect  of 
persons,  and  no  taking  of  bribes,11  for  all  is  His.  And 
(32)  know  that  all  is  according  to  reckoning.1-  And  let  not 

1  R.   Eleazar:  The  MSS.  vary,  Eliezer,  Liezer.     He  was  a  con 
temporary  of  "  Rabbi." 

'2  ha-Kappar  :  Meaning  uncertain,  perhaps  "dealer  in  asphalt." 

3  drive  a  man  .  .  .:  cp.  ii.  14. 

4  born:  AN" formed." 

5  to  live  again  :  This  is  probably  the  best  way  to  render  the  causa 
tive  form  of  the  verb  here  (ni'rrnS);  two  MSS.  read  nvtib,  "to  live";  but 

the   other  reading,   though  more    difficult    grammatically,    is    more 

6  who  live  (after  death) :  i.e.  the  risen. 

7  that  one  may  know. . .:  i.e.  that  one  may  know  from  others,  that 
one  may  make  others  know,  and  thus  that  it  will  be  universally  known 
that  He  is  God,  etc.     In  Hebrew  this  is  expressed  far  more  succinctly 
in  three  words  :  yrnri  rninb  yvV.     "  Truths  which   in  this  world  men 
are  taught  and  then  teach  others  '  will  in  the  world  to  come  be  known 
of  themselves  without  a  teacher,'  according  to  the  prophetic  description 
of  the  coming  age  :  '  And  they  shall  teach  no  more  every  man  his 
neighbour,  and  every  man  his  brother,  saying,  Know  the  Lord  ;  for 
they  shall  all  know  Me,  from  the  least  of  them,  unto  the  greatest  of 
them,  saith  the  Lord'  (Jer.  xxxi.  34)  ;  c/>.  i  Cor.  xiii.  12"  (Taylor). 

8  discerner:  See  Ps.  xxxiii.  15  (Hebrew). 

9  accuser :  p  bri,  lit.  "  Lord  of  judgement "  =  accuser. 

10  in  the  hereafter :  -ppy,  a  word  expressive  of  the  future  ;  some 
MSS.  add  "Blessed  be  He!" 

11  before  whom  .  .  .  bribes :  cp.  2  Chron.  xix.  7.       no  wrong-doing 
and  no  forgetting  :  Two  MSS.  omit. 

12  ...  reckoning :  ptfn,  cp.  Eccles.  vii.  27  ;  and  see  iii.  23  above. 


thy  (evil)  imagination1  persuade  thee 2  that  in  Sheol 
there  is  a  place  of  refuge;3  for  without  thy  will4  thou 
wast  formed,5  and  without  thy  will  thou  wast  born,  and 
without  thy  will  thou  livest,  and  without  thy  will  thou 
diest,  and  without  thy  will  thou  shalt  give  an  account  6 
and  a  reckoning  before  the  King  of  the  kings  of  kings,7 
the  Holy  One- Blessed  be  He!"8 


i.  (i)  BY  ten  sayings10  was  the  world  created.     And  what  does 
the  Scripture  n  teach  (regarding  this)?     For  could  it  not 

1  (evil)  imagination  :   Yetzer  ;  see  note  on  ii.  14. 

2  persuade  thee:  lit.  "cause  thee  to  trust." 

3  a  place  of  refuge:  lit.  "a  house  of  refuge";  AN  "a  house  of 

4  without  thy  will :  rra  means  "to  force":  and  the  adverb  usually 
means  "against  one's  will";  but  it  is  also  used  in  the  sense  of  "  with 
out  one's  will,"  which  is  often,  as  in  the  passage  before  us,  more  to 
the  point. 

5  thou  wast  formed :  cp.  Jer.  xviii.  5,  6. 
(i  an  account :  AN  omits. 

'  King  of  the  kings  of  kings :  This  expression  occurs  in  verse  14 
of  the  Psalm  of  Thanksgiving  after  Sir.  li.  12,  as  found  in  the  recently 
discovered  Hebrew  portions  of  the  book:  "Give  thanks  unto  the 
King  of  the  kings  of  kings  :  for  His  mercy  endureth  for  ever." 

8  Blessed  be  He :  cp.  Rom.  i.  5  ;  ix.  5  ;  2  Cor.  xi.  31. 

9  The   sayings  in  this  chapter   are   anonymous  as   far  as  v.   22  ; 
see  further  Introduction,  §  I. 

lu  By  ten  sayings :  For  this  idea  of  tabulating  various  things  by 
number,  cp.  e.g.  Prov.  vi.  16  :  "There  are  six  things  which  the  Lord 
hateth  ;  yea,  seven  which  are  an  abomination  unto  Him  .  .  ."  The 
world,  as  Taylor  points  out,  is  described  as  created  by  "  sayings," 
because  in  Genesis  the  acts  of  creation  begin  by  :  "and  God  said"; 
cp.  Ps.  xxxiii.  9, 

11  what  does  the  Scripture  :  This  is  the  meaning,  but  not  a  transla 
tion,  of  the  oft-recurring  phrase :  -raib  -nn!?rmm  ;  it  cannot  be  adequately 
rendered  in  English. 

v  6i 

have  been  created  by  one  saying  ?  But  (that  it  was 
created  by  ten  sayings  was)  to  punish  ]  the  wicked  who 
destroy  the  world  that  was  created  by  ten  sayings  ;  and 
to  give  a  goodly  reward  to  the  righteous  who  uphold  the 
world  that  was  created  by  ten  sayings.2 

2.  (2)  Ten   generations  (there  were)  from  Adam  to  Noah,3  in 

order  to  show4  how  great  was  His  longsuffering  ;  for  all 
generations  continued  provoking  Him  5  until  He  brought 
upon  them  the  waters  of  the  Flood. 

3.  (3)  Ten  generations  (there  were)  from  Noah  to  Abraham,6  in 

order  to  show  how  great  was  His  longsuffering  ;  for  all 
generations  continued  provoking  Him  until  Abraham  our 
lather 7  came  and  received  the  reward  of  them  all.8 

4.  (4)  With  ten  temptations  9  was  Abraham  our  father  tempted, 

1  to  punish:   lit.  "that  vengeance  might  he  taken  upon";  this  is 
the  force  of  the  form  of  the  verb  used. 

2  But  (that  it  was  ...)••  .:  The  meaning  is  that  since  the  import 
ance  of  God's  work  of  creation  was  enhanced  by  the  fact  that  it  was 
created  by   ten   sayings  instead  of  one,  therefore  the  sin  is  propor 
tionately  greater  on  the  part  of  those  who  by  their  wickedness  destroy 
this  beautiful  work  ;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  reward  is  propor 
tionately  greater  for  those  who  by  their  goodness  uphold  the  world. 
It  is   interesting  to  notice  in  this  passage  the    implied   relationship 
between  ethical  and  cosmic  processes  ;  cp.  Rom.  viii.  19-23. 

3  from  Adam  to  Noah :  viz.  Adam,  Seth,  Enosh,  Kenan,  Mahalalel, 
Jared,  Enoch,  Methuselah,  Lamech,  Noah  (Gen.  v.  1-31). 

4  to  show  .  .  .:  cp.  i  Pet.  iii.  20. 

5  continued  provoking  Him :  For  the  form  of  the  phrase  (v:^  pDTttp) 
cp.  .  .  .  eVtoTTtoi/  at'Tof;,  Luke  xv.  18  ;  this  form  of  expression  is  used  in 
order  to  avoid  as  far  as  possible  the  anthropomorphic  thought  of  God's 
anger  with  these  people  (Fiebig).     With  the  passage  generally  cp. 
2  Pet.  iii.  5,  6. 

c  .  .  .  from  Noah  to  Abraham  :  viz.  Shem,  Arpachshad,  Shelah, 
Eber,  Peleg,  Reu,  Serug,  Nahor,  Terah,  Abraham  (Gen.  xi.  10-26). 

7  Abraham  our  father :  cp.  Matt.  iii.  9  ;  John  viii.  53  ;  Rom.  iv.  i. 

s  received  the  reward  of  them  all :  i.e.  the  reward  that  all  of  them 
together  would  have  received,  had  they  been  righteous. 

tt  With  ten  temptations  .  .  .:  These  were,  according  to  Maimo- 
nides:  (i)  Leaving  his  native  place  (Gen.  xii.  1-5)  ;  (2)  the  famine  in 

62  v 

and  he  withstood  them  all  ;  to  show  how  great  was  the 
love  of  Abraham  l  our  father. 

5.  (5)  Ten  wonders2  were  wrought   for   our   fathers   in    Egypt, 

and  ten  by  the  sea.8 

6.  (7)  With  ten4  temptations  did  our  fathers  tempt  God5  in  the 

wilderness,  as  it  is  said:  "And  they  tempted6  Me  these 
ten  times  and  have  not  hearkened  unto  My  voice." 

7.  (8)  Ten  wonders7  were  wrought  for  our  fathers  in  the  Sanctuary : 

(i)  No  woman  miscarried  from  the  smell  of  the  holy  meat ; 
(ii)  and  the  holy  meat  never  stank ;  (iii)  and  no  unclean- 
ness  befell  the  high-priest  on  the  Day  of  Atonement ; 

the  land  of  Canaan  (xii.  10)  ;  (3)  Sarah  in  Pharaoh's  house  (xii.  14  ff.); 
(4)  the  battle  with  the  four  kings  (xiv.  14  ff.);  (5)  Abraham's  union 
with  Hagar  (xvi.  2)  ;  (6)  the  covenant  of  circumcision  (xvii.  9,  10)  ; 
(7)  Sarah  and  Abimelech  (xx.  2  ff.)  ;  (8)  the  casting-out  of  Hagar 
(xxi.  10)  ;  (9)  the  repudiation  of  Ishmael  (xxi.  10)  ;  (10)  the  offering- up 
of  Isaac  (xxii.  9,  10)  ;  see  further  Hoffmann  and  Taylor  in  he. 

1  the  love  of  Abraham  :  i.e.  for  God  ;  cp.  Is.  xii.  8  ;  2  Chron.  xx.  7; 
James  ii.  23. 

2  Ten  wonders  .  .  . :  i.e..  the  ten  plagues.     The  word  for  "  wonder" 
here  is  c:,  lit.  "an  ensign"  in  Biblical  Hebrew  ;  it  means  a  sign,  in  the 
sense  of  a  wonder,  in  neo-Hebrew. 

3  ten  by  the  sea :  There  are  quaint  legends  about  these  in  ancient 
Rabbinical  writings,  viz.  AN  xxxiii.  2  ;  Midrash  Mechilta  on   Exod. 
xv.  8  ;  Pirke  de  Rabbi  Eliczcr  xlii.  ;  and  in   Maimonides  ;  see  Hoff 
mann  and  Taylor  ///  loc.     At  the  end  of  this  verse  this  later  addition 
is  inserted  :  "Ten  plagues  did  the  Holy  One— Blessed  be  He  !— bring 
upon  the  Egyptians  in  Egypt,  and  ten  by  the  sea." 

4  With  ten  .  .  .:  viz.  according  to  Maimonides  :  (i)  At  the  Red  Sea 
(Exod.  xiv.  ii);  (2)  in  Marah  (xv.  24);  (3)  in  the  wilderness  of  Sin  (xvi. 
2);  (4)  regarding  the  manna  (xvi.  20)  ;  (5)  the  gathering  of  manna  on 
the  Sabbath  (xvi.  27)  ;  (6)  in  Rephidim  (xvii.  2)  ;  (7)  the  golden  calf 
(xxxii.  i);  (8)  in  Taberah  (Num.  xi.  i);  (9)  in  Kibroth-hattaavah  (xi.  4); 
(10)  the  murmuring  against  Moses  and  Aaron  (xiv.  2ff)  (Hoffmann). 

5  God  :  "  Makom";  see  note  on  ii.  13. 

6  And  they  tempted  :  Num.  xiv.  22. 

7  Ten  wonders  .  .  .:  These  offer  a  good  example  (of  many)  of  the 
curious  legends  current  among  the  Jews  already  in  the  early  centuries 
of  Christianity  and  preserved  in  various  Rabbinical  writings. 

v  63 

(iv)  and  no  fly1  was  seen  in  the  slaughter-house  ;  (v)  and 
no  defect  was  found  in  the  sheaf,2  nor  in  the  two  loaves,:] 
nor  in  the  shewbread;4  (vi)  and  rains  quenched  not  the 
fire5  of  the  wood6  for  the  altar;  (vii)  and  no  wind 
prevailed  against  the  pillar  of  smoke ; 7  (viii)  (though) 
they  stood 8  pressed  together  (yet)  they  bowed  down 
(to  worship)  at  ease;9  (ix)  and  no  serpent  or  scorpion 
harmed 10  (any)  in  Jerusalem ;  (x)  and  no  man  said  to 
his  neighbour,  "The  place  is  too  strait  for  me,"11  that  I 
may  lodge1-  in  Jerusalem. 

8.  (9)  Ten  things  were  created  between  the  suns;13  and  they  are 

I  fly  :  zebub  ;  cp.  Matt.  x.  25,  etc. 

'-'  sheaf:  Corner  ;  see  Lev.  xxiii.  10-14. 

3  the  two  loaves  :  See  Lev.  xxiii.  17. 

4  the  shewbread  :  See  Exod.  xxv.  30  ;  Lev.  xxiv.  5-9. 

5  the  fire  :  Some  MSS.  omit. 

c  the  wood:  m-i^nn,  from  -pss  "to  lay  in  order";  the  word  is 
used  technically  of  the  pile  of  wood  on  the  altar  in  the  Temple  ;  cp. 
Gen.  xxii.  9  ;  Lev.  i.  7.  The  same  word  is  used  in  a  different  con 
nexion  of  soldiers  in  the  battle-line  (Jastrow). 

7  the  pillar  of  smoke  :  i.e.  the  smoke  that  rose  up  from  sacrifice 
on  the  altar  ;  it  is  said  that  this  always  ascended  straight  up  and  then 
spread  out,  "  like  a  palm-tree,"  T.B.Joma  21  b  (Hoffmann). 

8  they  stood :  i.e.  the  congregation. 

9  at  ease:  lit.  "extended,"  orm  ;  theroot  =  "to  be  wide,"  "roomy," 
and  then  "to  be  at  ease." 

10  harmed:  It  is  from  this  root  pu  that  the  word  for  "demons," 
tnazzikin%  is  derived  ;  see  note  on  next  verse. 

II  The  place  .  .  .:  Is.  xlix.  20. 

ia  that  I  may  lodge:  pb  means  "to  pass  the  night";  cp.  Gen. 
xxxii.  22. 

13  ...  created  between  the  suns :  See  the  almost  identical  words 
of  this  saying  in  Pirke  de  R.  Eliezer  xviii.  These  ten  very  special 
things,  as  well  as  the  additional  things  mentioned  at  the  end  of  the 
verse,  are  not  spoken  of  as  having  been  created  on  any  of  the  six  days 
of  the  Creation,  and  on  the  Sabbath  day  they  could  not  have  been 
created,  so  the  Rabbis  got  over  the  difficulty  by  saying  that  they  were 
created  in  the  twilight  ("between  the  suns"),  after  sunset  on  the  last 
day  o/  Creation,  and  before  the  rising  of  the  Sabbath  sun.  The 
traditional  explanation  is  that  at  the  moment  between  the  end  of 


these  :  (i)  The  mouth  of  the  earth  ; l  (ii)  and  the  (mouth 
of  the)  well ;  (iii)  and  the  mouth  of  the  she-ass  ;  (iv)  and 

Creation  and  the  beginning  of  the  Sabbath  God  implanted  in  the 
powers  of  Nature  the  capability  of  producing  all  these  tilings  when  the 
time  should  have  arrived  at  which  they  would  be  required. 

1  the  mouth  of  the  earth :  See  Num.  xvi.  32  :  ".  .  .  and  the  earth 
opened  her  mouth,  and  swallowed  them  up  .  .  ."  That  this  was 
regarded  by  the  Rabbis  as  a  special  creation  is  well  brought  out  by 
the  paraphrase  in  the  Targum  of  Onkclos  on  Num.  xvi.  28  ff.:  "And 
Moses  said,  By  this  shall  ye  know  that  the  Lord  hath  sent  me  to  do 
all  these  works,  and  that  I  have  not  done  them  from  the  thoughts  of 
my  heart.  .  .  .  But  if  a  death  which  hath  not  been  created  since  the 
clays  of  the  world  be  now  created  for  them,  and  if  a  mouth  for  the 
earth,  which  hath  not  been  made  from  the  beginning,  be  created  now, 
and  the  earth  open  her  mouth,  and  swallow  them,  and  all  that  they 
have,  and  go  down  alive  into  Sheol,  you  will  understand  that  these 
men  have  provoked  the  Lord  to  anger." — Our  passage  speaks  next 
of  "  the  mouth  of  the  well,"  There  is  an  ancient  Jewish  legend  which 
says  that  for  Miriam's  sake  (the  sister  of  Moses)  a  marvellous  well 
accompanied  the  Israelites  ;  it  was  a  rock  which  contained  this  well, 
and  which  followed  the  Israelites  wherever  they  went.  In  the  Targum 
of  Onkelos  on  Num.  xxi.  16-1 8  (which  contains  the  "  Song  of  the  Well") 
it  is  said  :  "And  from  thence  (i.e.  from  Beer,  which  means  'a  well') 
was  given  to  them  the  living  well,  the  well  concerning  which  the  Lord 
said  to  Moses,  Assemble  the  people  and  give  them  water.  Then, 
behold,  Israel  sang  the  thanksgiving  of  this  song,  at  the  time  that  the 
well  which  had  been  hidden  was  restored  to  them,  through  the  merit 
of  Miriam  .  .  .";  further,  in  the  Midrash  Rabba  on  Num.  i.  i,  which, 
though  of  much  later  date,  contains  many  ancient  elements,  it  says 
that  the  Israelites  had  a  well  "through  the  merit  of  Miriam,"  and  it  is 
described  thus  :  "  It  was  a  crag  like  a  bee-hive,  and  it  used  to  roll 
along  and  accompany  them  on  their  journeyings.  And  when  the 
standards  were  pitched,  and  the  Tabernacle  rested,  the  crag  came  and 
settled  in  the  court  of  the  tent  of  meeting,  and  the  princes  came  and 
stood  beside  it,  and  said,  '  Spring  up,  O  well,'  and  then  it  would 
spring  up"  (cp.  Num.  xxi.  17,  18).  it  is  this  ancient  legend  that 
St.  Paul  utilises  when  he  says  in  i  Cor.  x.  1-4  :  ".  .  .  for  they  drank  of  a 
spiritual  rock  that  followed  them  ;  and  that  rock  was  Christ."  In  our 
passage  it  is  the  mouth  of  this  well  which  is  referred  to.— Then  it 
speaks  of  "the  mouth  of  the  she-ass";  that  is,  of  course,  a  reference 
to  Num.  xxii.  28  :  "And  the  Lord  opened  the  mouth  of  the  ass."  It 
is  interesting  to  note  in  passing  that,  in  the  Targum  of  Onkelos  on  this 
passage,  the  verse  from  Pirke  Aboth  with  which  we  are  dealing  is 

v  65 

the  (rain-)bow  ;  (v)  and  the  manna ;  (vi)  and  the  rod ; 
(vii)  and  Shamir ;  (viii)  and  the  form  of  writing ;  (ix)  and 
the  manner  of  writing;1  (x)  and  the  Tables.2  And 
there  are  those  who  say,  in  addition  to  these,  the  Demons, 3 

inserted  in  the  text,  though  the  ten  things  differ  slightly  in  this  text. — 
Then,  the  rainbow,  the  manna,  and  the  rod  (of  Moses)  (cp.  Gen.  ix.  13 ; 
Exod.  xvi.  15  ;  Exod.  iv.  17)  are  spoken  of;  these  require  no  com 
ment.  But  the  next  thing,  Shamir,  demands  a  little  notice.  In 
Exod.  xx.  25  the  prohibition  is  uttered  :  "  If  thou  make  Me  an  altar 
of  stone,  thou  shalt  not  build  it  of  hewn  stones  ;  for  if  thou  lift  up  thy 
tool  upon  it,  thou  hast  polluted  it"  (cp.  Deut.  xxvii.  6  ;  Josh.  viii.  31). 
The  reason  for  this  prohibition  was  because  altars  were  originally 
pieces  of  rough  stone  or  rock  in  which  a  deity  was  believed  to  have 
taken  up  his  abode  ;  its  holiness  was  derived,  not  from  the  fact  that  a 
god  was  already  in  it,  but  because  he  had  consented  to  take  up  his 
abode  in  the  stone  or  rock  which  had  been  previously  chosen  for  him. 
But  it  was  not  permitted  to  change  the  natural  form  of  such  stone  in 
any  way,  for  it  was  believed  that  in  that  case  the  god  would  look  upon 
it  as  having  been  polluted.*  The  idea  is  a  very  primitive  one,  but  it 
crops  up  now  and  again  in  the  Old  Testament  ;  it  lies  at  the  root  of 
what  we  read  in  I  Kings  vi.  7  about  the  building  of  Solomon's  temple : 
"And  the  house,  when  it  was  in  building,  was  built  of  stone  made 
ready  at  the  quarry,  and  there  was  neither  hammer  nor  axe  nor  any 
tool  of  iron  heard  in  the  house  while  it  was  in  building."  In  later  days, 
when  the  love  of  the  marvellous  grew,  it  was  said  that  Solomon  had 
been  able  to  dispense  with  iron  for  hewing  the  stones  into  shape  for 
his  temple,  because  he  had  discovered  a  wonderful  worm,  called 
Shamir,  which  had  the  power  of  splitting  stones  and  rocks.  The 
word  is  used  of  a  "diamond"  and  "flint";  in  T.B.  Gittin  68  a,  it  is 
said  that  Moses  used  Shamir  for  cutting  the  jewels  of  the  Ephod 
(Jastrow) ;  see  further  Cassel,  Schamir,  ein  archaologischcr  Beitrag 
zur  Natur-  und  Sagenkunde. 

1  the  form  of  writing  and  the  manner .  .  .  :   in^prn  nron ;   the 
former  refers  to  the  single  letters,  the  latter  to  their  combination  in 
writing,  i.e.  sentences. 

2  the  Tables  :  See  Exod.  xxiv.  12,  etc. 

3  the  Demons  :  Mazzikin  —  "  the  harmful  ones,"  as  the  root  im- 

*  The  reason  given  in  the  Mishnah  (Middoth  iii.  4),  that  iron  is  used  to 
shorten  life,  the  altar  to  prolong  it,  and  that  it  would  therefore  be  unfitting 
to  use  iron  for  the  building  of  an  altar,  is,  of  course,  nonsense  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  there  was  a  brazen  altar  in  Solomon's  temple  (i  Kings  viii.  64). 

66  v 

and  the  sepulchre  of  Moses,1  and  the  ram  of  Abraham  2 
our  father.  And  there  are  those  who  say,  in  addition  to 
these,  the  tongs,3  made  with  tongs. 

9.  (10)  Seven  things  (there  are)  in  an  ignorant  man,4  and  seven 
in  a  wise  man.  (i)  A  wise  man  speaks  not  in  the  presence 
of  one  who  is  greater  than  he  in  wisdom  ;  (ii)  and  does 
not  break  in  when  his  associate  speaks  ; 5  (iii)  and  is  not 
hasty  in  returning  answer;  (iv)  he  asks  according  to 
rule,6  and  answers  to  the  point ;  (v)  and  he  speaks  about 
the  first  (point)  first,  and  on  the  last  (one)  last ;  (vi)  and 
of  what  he  has  not  heard  he  says :  "I  have  not  heard  "; 
(vii)  and  he  acknowledges  the  truth.  And  their  opposites 
are  in  the  ignorant  man. 

10.  (i  i)  Seven  kinds  of  punishment  come  upon  the  world7  for  seven 
categories  of  transgression  :  (i)  When  part  (of  the  people) 
give  tithes  and  part  do  not  give  tithes,  famine  from 
drought  comes ;  some  are  hungry  and  some  have  enough, 
(ii)  When  they  have  not  given  tithes  at  all,8  dearth  from 

plies  ;  this  is  the  most  general  term  for  them,  though  various  other 
grades  of  them  are  mentioned  in  the  Talmud  and  kindred  writings  : 
shedim  —  "  evil  genii,"  an  Assyrio-Bab.  loan-word  ;  ////;/,  probably  evil 
spirits  of  the  night,  also  from  the  Assyrio-Bab.;  and  rttcfrin  =  u  spirits"; 
on  the  whole  subject  of  the  Jewish  belief  in  demons  see  Blau,  Das 
altjiidische  Za  uberwesen. 

1  the  sepulchre  of  Moses :  cp.  Deut.  xxxiv.  4  ;  two  authorities  add 
"  our  master." 

-  the  ram  of  Abraham  :  cp.  Gen.  xxii.  13. 

:i  the  tongs  .  .  .:  Strack  refers  to  T.B.  Pesachim  54*2  :  "  One  pair 
of  tongs  is  made  with  another.  But  who  made  the  first  pair  ? "  i.e. 
it  must  have  been  created  by  God. 

4  an  ignorant  man :  L?>,  lit.   "  an  unformed  mass,"  and  so  of  an 
uncultured  man  ;  in  Ps.  cxxxix.  16  the  word  is  used  of  the  babe  unborn. 

5  when  his  associate  speaks :  lit.  "  in  the  midst  of  the  words  of 
his  associate." 

G  rule:  halakah\  see  note  on  iii.  26.  Another  reading  has  the 
sense  that  "his  questions  are  such  as  are  really  relevant." 

7  upon  the  world  :  Some  authorities  omit. 

8  When  they  have  not ...  at  all :  lit.  "When  they  have  completed 
not  to  give  .  .  ,,"  from  root  -^3 ;  see  note  on  p.  54. 

tumult *  [and  from  drought]  comes.     (Hi)  And  when  they 
have  not  offered  the  dough  2  an  all-consuming  3  dearth 

(12)  comes,     (iv)  Pestilence  comes  into  the  world  for  crimes 
worthy  of  death4  recorded  in  the  Law  (Torah)  which  are 
not  brought  before  the   tribunal,5   and    because  of  the 

(13)  seventh-year   fruits.6      (v)  The   sword   comes    upon  the 
world  because  of  the  postponement7  of  justice8  and  for 
the  perversion 9  of  justice ; 8  and  because  of  those  who 
explain   the   Torah   not   according   to  the    right   way.10 

(14)  (vi)  Noisome  beasts  come  into  the  world  because  of  false 
swearing  and  because  of  the  profanation  of  the  Name.11 
(vii)  Exile  comes  upon  the  world  because  of  those  who 
offer  strange  worship,12  and  because  of  incest,  and  because 
of  the  shedding  of  blood,  and  because  of  the  "  release  " 13 
of  the  land. 

ii.  (15)  At  four  periods  the  pestilence  increases:  (i)  In  the  fourth 
(year),  (ii)  and  in   the   seventh   (year),    (iii)  and  at  the 

1  tumult :  The  reference  is  to  war. 

2  the   dough  :    of  which  the  "  cake   for  the   heave-offering "  was 
made  ;  see  Num.  xv.  20. 

::  all-consuming  :  rra  =  "  extinction  "  :  the  root  rrb  =  "  to  cease," 

4  crimes  worthy  of  death  :  n-irro ;  the  word  rrcra  means  "  death 
penalty";  but  here  the  "  crimes  "  for  which  this  is  inflicted  is  under 

"  the  tribunal:  p  rra,  lit.  "the  house  of  judgement." 

0  because  of  the  .  .  .  fruits :  i.e.  if  these  are  used  for  merchandise 
instead  of  being  treated  as  holy  according  to  the  commandment  ;  see 
Exod.  xxiii.  10,  ii  ;  Lev.  xxv.  1-7. 

7  postponement :  nrr,  from  the  root  rcy  n. 

8  justice  :  p,  lit.  "judgement,"  in  each  case. 

9  perversion  :    rmy,  a  noun  from  rny  ;  cp.  Job  viii.  3  :  "  Doth  God 
pervert  (n?r)  judgement .  .  .  ?" 

10  the  right  way :  halakah  ;  see  note  on  iii.  26  ;  i.e.  forbidding  that 
which  is  allowed,  and  allowing  that  which  is  forbidden. 

11  profanation  of  the  Name :  See  note  on  iv.  5. 

12  Strange  worship  :  Abodah  Zarah,  i.e.  idolatry. 

13  "  release  ":  Shemitta  ;  the  reference  is  to  the  neglect  of  the  laws 
concerning  land  in  the  Sabbatical  year  and  in  the  year  of  jubilee  ;  see 
Lev.  xx vi.  34  f. 

F    2 

68  v 

ending l  of  the  seventh  (year),  (iv)  and  at  the  ending  of 
the  feast2  in  every  year.  In  the  fourth  (year)  because 
of  the  tithe  of  the  poor3  in  the  third  (year);  in  the 
seventh  (year)  because  of  the  tithe  of  the  poor  in  the 
sixth  (year);4  and  at  the  ending  of  the  seventh  (year) 
because  of  the  fruits  5  of  the  seventh  (year) ;  and  at  the 
ending  of  the  feast  in  every  year  because  of  the  robbery 
of  the  gifts  6  of  the  poor. 

(16)  (There  are)  four  types  of  character  7  in  men  :  (i)  He  who 
says :  "  Mine  is  mine,  and  thine  is  thine,"  that  is  a 
moderate8  type — some  say  it  is  the  Sodom  type9  of 
character ;  (ii)  (he  who  says) :  "  Mine  is  thine,  and  thine 
is  mine,"  (that  is  what  the)  lam  ha-aretz 10  (say) ;  (iii)  (he 
who  says) :  "  Mine  is  thine,  and  thine  is  thine,"  (that  is 
what  the)  Chasid11  (says);  (iv)  (he  who  says):  "Thine  is 
mine,  and  mine  is  mine,"  (that  is  what  the)  wicked  man 

I  at  the  ending  :  lit.  "  in  the  goings-out." 

-  the  feast :  i.e.  Succoth,  the  feast  of  Tabernacles  ;  the  "  feast  ol 
ngathering"  (Exod.  xxiii.  16). 

a  the  tithe  of  the  poor .  .  . :  on  account  of  its  not  having  been 
paid  ;  see  Deut.  xiv.  28. 

4  in  the  seventh  .  .  .  sixth :  The  tithe  for  the  poor  had  to  be  paid 
in  the  third  and  sixth  years  in  the  seven-year  cycle. 

5  because   of  the  fruits  .  .  . :    i.e.   on  account  of  neglecting  to 
"  release"  the  fruits  in  the  preceding  year  ;  see  Exod.  xxiii.  10,  u. 

6  the  robbery  of  the  gifts  .  .  . :  The  reference  is  to  neglect  of 
the  commands  given  in  Lev.  xix.  9  ;  Deut.  xxiv.  19. 

7  types  of  character:  Middoth  —  lit.  "measures"  in  Bibl.  Hebrew; 
in  neo-Hebrew  the  word  has  a  wide  signification,  "manner,"  "quality," 
"kind,"  etc. 

8  moderate:  lit.  "between,"  "intermediate";  i.e.  neither  good  nor 

9  Sodom  type  :  "Behold,  this  was  the  iniquity  of  thy  sister  Sodom  ; 
pride,  fullness  of  bread,  and  prosperous  ease  was  in  her  and  in  her 
daughters  ;  neither  did  she  strengthen  the   hand   of  the  poor  and 
needy  "  (Ezek.  xvi.  49). 

10  'am  ha-aretz  :  See  note  on  ii.  6. 

II  Chasid  :  See  note  on  ii.  6. 

v  69 

I3-1  (r?)  (There are)  four  types  of  character  regarding  disposition:2 
(i)  (He  who  is)  easily  provoked  and  easily  pacified ;  his 
loss  is  cancelled  by  his  gain.3  (ii)  (He  who  is)  hard 
to  provoke  and  hard  to  pacify;  his  gain  is  cancelled 
by  his  loss.3  (iii)  (He  who  is)  hard  to  provoke  and 
easily  pacified;  (he  is)  a  Chasid.  (iv)  (He  who  is) 
easily  provoked  and  hard  to  pacify;  (he  is)  a  wicked 

14.  (18)  (There  are)  four  types  of  character  in  scholars  :  (i)  (He 

who  is)  quick  to  hear  and  quick  to  forget;  his  gain  is 
cancelled  by  his  loss,  (ii)  (He  who  is)  slow  to  hear  and 
slow  to  forget ;  his  loss  is  cancelled  by  his  gain,  (iii)  (He 
who  is)  quick  to  hear  and  slow  to  forget ;  (he  is)  a  wise 
man.  (iv)  (He  who  is)  slow  to  hear  and  quick  to  forget ; 
such  a  man  (has)  a  sad  4  lot. 

15.  (19)  (There  are)  four  types  of  character  among  those  who  give 

alms : 5  (i)  He  who  is  willing  to  give  himself,  but  not 
that  others  G  should  give ;  his  eye  7  is  evil  towards  that 
which  belongs  to  others,  (ii)  (He  who  is  willing)  that 
others  should  give,  while  he  (himself)  gives  not ;  his  eye 
is  evil  towards  his  own  (belongings),  (iii)  He  who  gives 
and  (is  willing  that)  others  should  give ;  (he  is)  a  Chasid. 
(iv)  He  who  gives  not,  nor  (desires)  others  to  give ;  (he 
is)  an  evil  man. 

1  Some  authorities  place  this  verse  after  verse  14. 

2  disposition  :  or  "temperament";  plur.  in  Hebr.;  rim  =  lit.  "know 
ledge,"  then  a  man's  view  of,  or  attitude  towards,  things,  and  so  his 
general  disposition,  or  habit  of  life. 

3  his  loss  .  .  .  gain:  "A  various  reading  interchanges  the  words 
'  loss '  and  '  gain,3  and  thus  reverses  the  estimates  of  the  first  and 
second  tempers  "  (Taylor). 

4  sad  :  lit.  "evil." 

5  alms:    lit.  "righteousness"  (zedakah}  ;    almsgiving  is  righteous 
ness  par  excellence. 

6  but  not  that  others  .  .  .:  i.e.  he  alone  wants  to  have  the  credit. 

7  his  eye  .  .  .:  i.e.  he  is  envious  of  others  because  they  have  the 
wherewithal  to  give  alms. 

yo  v 

1 6.  (20)  (There  are)  four  types  of  character  among  those  who 

frequent  the  house  of  learning:1  (i)  He  who  goes  (there), 
but  does  not  practise ; 2  the  reward 3  of  his  going  is  in 
his  hand,  (ii)  He  who  practises,  but  does  not  go  ;  the 
reward  of  his  practice  is  in  his  hand.4  (iii)  He  who  goes 
and  practises  :  (he  is)  a  Chasid.  (iv)  He  who  neither 
goes  nor  practises ;  (he  is)  an  evil  man. 

17.  (21)  (There  are)  four  types  of  character  among  those  who  sit5 

in  the  presence  of  the  wise  :  a  sponge,6  and  a  funnel,  a 
strainer,  and  a  sieve.7  A  sponge  (is  he)  who  sucks  up 
all;  a  funnel  (is  he)  who  takes  in  on  one  side  and  lets 
out  on  the  other  ;  a  strainer  (is  he)  who  lets  out  the  wine 
and  retains  the  dregs  ;  a  sieve  (is  he)  who  lets  out  the 
coarse  meal  and  retains  the  fine  flour. 

18.  (22)  All  love  that  depends  on  a  transient  thing8 — (of  such  it 

may  be  said),  when  the  thing  has  ceased,  the  love  ceases 

(too) ;    but  (the  love)  that  depends  not  on  a   transient 

(23)  thing  never  ceases.     What  is  that  love  which  depends  on 

a  transient  thing?     The   love    of  Amnon  and  Tamar.9 

1  the  house   of  learning:   Beth  ha-Midrash.      One    MS.   omits 
"house  of." 

2  does  not  practise :  i.e.  what  he  learns  there. 

3  the  reward  .  .  .:  i.e.  his  reward  corresponds  with  his  action  ;  for 
the  thought  cp.  Matt.  x.  41. 

4  He  who  practises,  but ...  his  hand :  Two  MSS.  omit. 

5  those  who  sit  .  .  . :  See  note  on  i.  4. 

6  a  sponge  :  :ICD  =  o-noyyos  ;  cp.  Matt,  xxvii.  48. 

7  a  sieve  :  cp.  Is.  xxx.  28  ;  it  was  made  of  coarse  hair,  and  used  for 
sifting  flour  from  the  husks.     But  from  the  words  which  follow  at  the 
end  of  the  saying  :  ".  .  .  who  lets  out  the  coarse  meal  and  retains  the 
fine  flour,"  it  is  obvious  that  a  sieve  in  the  ordinary  sense  of  the  word 
cannot  be  intended  here,  since  this  would  retain  the  coarse  meal  and 
let  out  the  fine  flour.     The  word  rendered  "sieve,"  ns:,  is  used  in  the 
Talmud,  among  other  things,  of  a  small  "basket"  in  which  women, 
whilst  combing  their  hair,  placed  the  hairs  which  fell  out  ;  see  Krauss, 
i.  656.     Probably  some  basket  of  this  kind  is  meant. 

8  a  transient  thing:  This  is  the  force  of  the  word  (-Q-,,  lit.  "thing") 

9  Amnon  and  Tamar  :  See  2  Sam.  xiii. 

And  (what  love  is)  that  which  depends  not  on  a  transient 
thing  ?     The  love  of  David  and  Jonathan. 

19.  (24)  Every  controversy 1  which  is  for  the  name2  of  Heaven 

will  in  the  end  be  profitable;3  and  (every  controversy) 
which  is  not  for  the  name  of  Heaven  will  not  in  the  end 
(25)  be  profitable.  What  is  a  controversy  which  is  for  the 
name  of  Heaven?  The  controversy  of  Shammai  and 
Hillel.4  And  (what  is  a  controversy  which  is)  not  for 
the  name  of  Heaven  ?  The  controversy  of  Koran 5  and 
all  his  congregation.6 

20.  (26)  Whosoever  makes  the  many7  righteous,  sin  prevails  not 

over  him ; 8  and  whosoever  makes  the  many  to  sin, 
(27)  they9  grant  him  not  the  power  to  repent.10  Moses  was 
righteous11  and  made  many  righteous,11  and  the  righteous 
ness  n  of  many  depended  on  him,  as  it  is  said :  "  He 
executed  the  justice  of  the  Lord,  and  his  judgements  with 
Israel."  12  Jerobeam  sinned  and  made  the  many  to  sin, 
(and)  the  sin  of  the  many  depended  on  him,  as  it  is  said  : 
"  Because  of  the  sins  of  Jerobeam  who  sinned  and  who 
made  Israel  to  sin."  13 

1  controversy:  lit.  "division"  (of opinion). 

2  for  the  name  .  .  .:  The  reference  is  to  a  discussion  which  has  for 
its  object  the  establishing  of  some  divine  truth  ;  it  is  thus  intended  to 
be  for  the  honour  and  glory  of  God. 

3  profitable :  lit.  "  will  have  success,"  i.e.  in  so  far  as  the  know 
ledge  of  the  truth  is  furthered  by  the  discussion. 

4  Shammai  and  Hillel :  See  note  on  i.  12.     Some  authorities  read 
"  Hillel  and  Shammai." 

5  Korah  :  cp.  Jude  n. 

"  and  all  his  congregation :  Some  authorities  omit. 
7  the  many  .  .  .:  c'rn  =  ol  TroXXoi ;  cp.  Rom.  v.  19. 
s  sin  prevails  not  over  him  :  cp.  James  v.  19,  20. 
"  they  :  i.e.  God. 

10  to  repent :  lit.  "  to  do  repentance." 

11  righteous,  made  righteous,  righteousness:  These  all  come  from 
the  root  mi  (ZakaJi)  ;  on  Zecuth,  more  strictly  "merit,"  see  note  on  ii.  2. 

'-  He  executed  the  justice  .  .  .:  Deut.  xxxiii.  21  ;  "justice"  in  the 
Hebrew  of  this  passage  is  npT?  ("righteousness")  ;  cp.  Hebr.  iii.  2  ff. 

13  Jerobeam . .  .  Israel  to  sin  :  One  MS.  omits.  Because  of . .  . : 
i  Kings  xiv.  6  ;  xv.  30. 

72  v 

21.  (28)  In  whomsoever  there  are  three  things,  he1  (belongs)  to 

the  disciples  of 2  Abraham  our  father ; 3  and  in  whom 
soever4  these  three  things  are  not,  he  (belongs)  to  the 
(29)  disciples  of  Bileam 5  the  wicked:6  a  good  eye,  and  a 
lowly  soul,  and  a  humble  spirit  (belong)  to  the  disciples 
of  Abraham  our  father ;  an  evil  eye,  an  ambitious  soul, 
and  a  haughty  spirit  (belong)  to  the  disciples  of  Bileam 
the  wicked.  And  what  is  (the  difference)  between  the 
disciples  of  Abraham  our  father  and  the  disciples  of 
Bileam  the  wicked?  The  disciples  of  Bileam  the  wicked 
go  down  to  Gehinnom,7  as  it  is  said  :  "  But  Thou,  O  God, 
shalt  bring  them  down  into  the  pit  of  destruction ; 
bloodthirsty  and  deceitful  men  shall  not  live  out  half 
their  days."  8  But  the  disciples  of  Abraham  our  father 
shall  inherit  the  Garden  of  Eden,  as  it  is  said:  "That  I 
may  cause  those  that  love  Me  to  inherit  substance,  and 
that  I  may  fill  their  treasuries."9 

22.  (30)  Jehuda  ben  Tema10  said  :  "  Be  strong  as  a  leopard,  and 

swift  as  an  eagle,  and  fleet  as  a  hart,  and  courageous  as  a 
lion,  to  do  the  will  of  thy  Father  which  is  in  Heaven."  u 

1  he :  In  the  plur.  in  Hebrew,  Mrr  =  crrn  and  rbxn  in  the  O.T.  ;  the 
sing,  is  rrVr.     One  MS.  omits  ;  another  reads  for  it  "good,"  i.e.  "three 

good  things." 

2  the  disciples  of:  One  MS.  omits. 

3  our  father:  Several  authorities  omit,  both  here  and  below. 

4  and  in  whomsoever.  .  .:    There  are  unimportant  variations  in 
the  MSS.  in  the  latter  part  of  this  saying. 

•>  the  disciples  of  Bileam:  cp.  2  Pet.  ii.  15  ;  Jude  11  ;  Rev.  ii.  14. 
0  the  wicked  :  Some  authorities  omit,  both  here  and  below. 

7  Gehinnom:  Some  authorities  have  :  "inherit  G."  and  add  :  "and 
go  down  to  the  pit  of  destruction." 

8  But  Thou  .  .  .:  Is.  lv.  24  (Hebr.)  ;  some  authorities  omit  "blood 
thirsty  .  .  .  days." 

9  That  I  may  cause  .  .  .:  Prov.  viii.  21. 

10  Jehuda  ben  T. :    He  lived  probably  during  the  second  half  of 
the  second  century  A.D.,  or  a  little  later.      Some  authorities  prefix 
"  Rabbi.73     He  is  mentioned  in  the  Talmud  as   one   learned  in  the 

11  thy  Father  which  is  in  Heaven  :  cp.  Matt.  vi.  9,  etc. 

v  73 

23-1  (31)  He  used  to  say:  "The  fierce  of  countenance2  for 
Gehinnom,  and  the  modest  of  countenance 3  for  the 
Garden  of  Eden." 

May  it  be  well-pleasing  in  Thy  sight,  O  Lord  our  God 
and  God  of  our  fathers,4  that  Thy  city  be  built 5  in  our 
days,  and  that  Thou  give  6  (us)  our  portion  in  Thy  Law, 
with  them  that  do  Thy  will. 

[24. 7  He  used  to  say  :  "  At  five  years,8  the  Scrip 
tures  ; 9  at  ten,  the  Mishnah  ;  at  thirteen,  the 
commandments;10  at  fifteen,  the  Talmud;11 
at  eighteen,  marriage ; 12  at  twenty,  the  seeking 
(of  sustenance  for  wife  and  child) ;  at  thirty, 
strength ; 13  at  forty,  discernment ;  at  fifty, 
counsel ;  at  sixty,  mature  age ;  at  seventy,  old 

I  AN  omits  this  saying. 

-  The  fierce  of  countenance :  ir:e  iy,  Deut.  xxviii.  50  ;  i.e.  such  as 
are  haughty  and  boastful. 

3  the  modest  of  countenance  :  D<:E  MTO,  i.e.  the  humble-minded  (lit. 
"shamefast  of  faces"). 

4  and  God  of  our  fathers  :  Some  authorities  omit. 
•'  built :  One  authority  adds  "  quickly." 

0  and  that  Thou  give  .  .  .:  One  MS.  omits  from  here  to  the  end 
of  the  saying. 

7  This    saying    is    omitted    by   several  authorities ;    it   is   a   latei 


8  At  five  years :  i.e.  at  this  age  the  child  is  ripe  for  reading  the 


9  the  Scriptures  :  Mikra,  lit.  "  Reading,"  a  technical  word  for  the 
Bible  ;  cp.  the  word  Koran^  with  which  it  is  radically  connected. 

10  the  commandments :  At  thirteen  years  old  a  boy  is  made  "  Bar 
Mitzvah,"  lit.  "a  son  of  the  commandment";  it  is  a  ceremony  correspond 
ing  to  Confirmation  in  the  modern  Anglican  Church,  the  Laymg-on  of 
hands  being  now  divorced  from  Baptism  ;  cp.  Luke  n.  41  n- 

II  Talmud :  Here  this  word  is  used  in  the  later  sense  in  which  we 
now  understand  it. 

12  marriage  :   Chuppah  =  the  "canopy"  under  which  the  marriage 
ceremony   is   performed;  cp.  Ps.  xix.  5  (Hebr.)  :  "And  he  is  like  a 
bridegroom  going  forth  from  his  Chuppah'' 

13  strength :  Based  on  Num.  iv.  3 :  ".  .  .  from  thirty  years^old  and 
upward,  even  until  fifty  years,  all  that  enter  upon  the  service. 

74  v-vi 

age  ;  at  eighty,  hoary  age  ; l  at  ninety,  bending ; 
at  a  hundred,  like  one  that  is  dead,  and  has 
passed  and  disappeared  from  the  world."] 

25.  (32)  Ben  Bag-Bag2  said  :  "Turn  it,3  and  turn  it  again  ;  and 
meditate  therein;4  for  all  things  are  in  it.  And  look 
into  it;5  become  grey  and  old  in  it;  and  move  not 
away  6  from  it ;  there  is  no  better  guide  T  for  thee  than 

26.8  (33)  Ben  He-He  said :  "According  to  the  labour,  so  is  the 

The  Chapter  on  the  Acquisition  of  the  Torah  10 

i.  WISE   men   have   taught  in  the   language   ot   the    Mishnah. 
Blessed  is  He  who  chose  them  and  their  teaching  !  n 

1  hoary  age:  geburah  =  lit.   "might";  here  it  means  a  "mighty 
age";  cp.  Ps.  xc.  10,  where  the  same  expression  occurs. 

2  Ben  Bag-Bag:  A  fictitious  name,  like  Ben  He-He  ;  A  N  ascribes 
both  sayings  to  Hillel. 

3  it  :  lit.  "  in  it";  the  reference  is  to  the  Torah. 

4  and  meditate  therein  :  Some  authorities  omit. 

5  look  into  it  :  cp.  James  i.  25. 

0  move  not  away  :  rn  is  an  Aramaic  word. 

7  guide  :  middah,  lit.  "  measure,"  "  rule  "  (of  conduct)  ;  see  note  on 

V.    12. 

8  This  saying  is  in  Aramaic  ;  cp.  with  it  i  Cor.  iii.  8  :  "  Each  shall 
receive  his  own  reward  according  to  his  own  labour."     But  in  the 
saying  here  the  reference  is  to  the  Torah.     The  treatise  ends  with  this 

9  On  the  place  of  this  chapter  in  the  tractate,  see  Introduction,  §  I. 

10  the  Acquisition  of  the  Torah  :  The  Hebrew  is  Kinvan  ha-  Tor  ah  > 
the  name  by  which  this  chapter  is  known. 

11  Wise  men  .  .  .  teaching  :  This  is  in  the  nature  of  a  sub-title  to  the 
chapter.        teaching  :  lit.  Mishnah. 

VI  75 

(i)  Rabbi  Meir l  said:  "Whosoever  is  occupied  in  the 
Torah  for  its  own  sake  merits  many  things;  and  not 
(only  this),  but  he  is  worth  the  whole  world  besides.  He 
is  called  the  friend  (of  God),  (he  is)  beloved  (of  God) ; 
he  loves  God,2  he  loves  mankind;  he  pleases  God,  he 
pleases  mankind  ; 3  and  it  clothes  him 4  with  humility 
and  fear,  and  fits  him  to  become  righteous  and  pious,5 
upright  and  faithful;  and  puts  him  far  from  sin,  and 
brings  him  near  to  the  side  of  merit.6  And  they  gain7 
from  him  counsel  and  sound  wisdom,8  discernment  and 
strength ;  as  it  is  said  :  *  Counsel  is  mine  and  sound 
wisdom,  I  am  understanding,  I  have  strength.'  9  And  it 
gives  him10  a  kingdom,11  and  dominion,1'2  and  discern 
ment  of  judgement,  and  they  reveal  to  him  the  secrets 
of  Torah.13  And  he  is  made  like  a  well14  that  ceases 
not,  and  like  a  river  that  grows  ever  mightier;  and  he 
becomes  modest,15  and  longsuffering,  and  forgiving  of 

1  R.  Meir  :  See  note  on  iv.  12. 

2  he  loves  God  :  The  word  used  is  Makom  ;  so,  too,  below  :  "  he 
pleases  God";  see  ii.  13. 

3  he  pleases  .  .  .  mankind  :  One  MS.  omits.        mankind  :  rvran  ; 
see  note  on  i.  12. 

4  it  clothes  him  :  i.e.  the  Torah  clothes  him  who  is  occupied  in  it 
for  its  own  sake  ;  cp.  r  Pet.  v.  5  :  "...  be  clothed  with  humility." 

5  pious :  One  MS.  omits. 

0  side  of  merit :  lit.  "hands  of  merit"  (Zecuth  ;  see  note  on  ii.  2). 

r  they  gain  .  .  .:  i.e.  his  fellow-creatures. 

8  sound  wisdom  :  tushiyyah  ;  cp.  Pirke  de  Rabbi  Eliezer  iii.:  ". . .  at 
once  the  Lord  took  counsel  with  the  Torah,  whose  name  is  tushiyyah, 
as  to  creating  the  world";  also  in  reference  to  Prov.  viii.  14. 

;|  Counsel  is  mine  .  .  .:  Prov.  viii.  14. 

10  And  it  gives  him  .  .  .:  cp.  Prov.  viii.  15  f. 

11  a  kingdom :  One  MS.  reads  "  life." 

12  dominion:  Two  MSS.  read  "great  dominion.'1 

13  the  secrets  of  Torah  :  p  ("  secret ")  means  in  the  deepest  "  foun 
dation,"  something-  that  lies  at  the  bottom  of  things  ;  it  =  the  Biblical 
-no,  e.g.  Ps.  xxv.  14  :  "The  secret  of  the  Lord  is  with  them  that  fear 

14  And  he  is  made  like  a  well .  .  .:  cp.  John  vii.  38  :  "  Out  of  his 
belly  shall  flow  rivers  of  living  water." 

15  modest :  For  the  Hebrew  word  $33  cp.  Micah  vi.  8  ;  Prov.  xi.  2, 

7  6  vi 

insult.     And  it  magnifies  him   and  exalts  him    over   all 

2.  (2)  Rabbi  Jehoshua  ben  Levi l  said:  "Every  day  a  Bath-Kol  2 
goes  forth  from  Mount  Horeb,  and  makes  proclamation, 
saying  :  '  Woe  to  you  mankind  that  despise  the  Torah ' ; 
whosoever  does  not  occupy  himself  with  the  Torah  is 
called  '  banned,'3  as  it  is  said  :  '  As  a  golden  nose-ring  in 
a  swine's  snout  is  a  fair  woman  without  discretion.'4 
And  it  says  (elsewhere) :  '  And  the  tables  were  the  work 
of  God,  and  the  writing  was  the  writing  of  God,  graven 
upon  the  tables ' ; 5  read  not 6  Charuth,  but  Cheruth? 

1  E.  Jehoshua  b.  L.:  He  lived  in  the  middle  of  the  third  century 
A.D.     His  home  was  in  Lydda. 

2  Bath-Kol :    lit.    "  daughter  voice."      This    expression    means   a 
divine  utterance  audibly  proclaimed  ;  it  is  often  spoken  of  in  Rab 
binical  writings,  and  is  said  to  have  made  itself  heard  in  a  variety 
of  ways,  sometimes  being  as  loud  as  the  roaring  of  a  lion,  at  other 
times   as   soft   as  the  voice  of  a  dove.     When  a  Bath-Kol  speaks, 
according  to  Rabbinical  teaching,  it  is  always  in  few  words,  and  these 
are  generally  taken  from  Scripture  ;  and  it  is  said  that  the  Bath-Kol 
is  the  voice  of  the  Holy  Spirit  (T.B.  Sotah  33  tf,  Shobbath  88  a).    With 
very  few  exceptions  the  Bath-Kol  is   always   said  to  proceed  from 
Heaven  ;  cp.  Matt.  iii.  13-17  ;  Mark  ix.  i-u  ;  Luke  iii.  21,  22  ;  and 
see  also  Matt.  xvii.    5  ;  Mark  ix.  7  ;  Luke  ix.  35  ;  John  xii.  28-30  ; 
Acts  ix.  3-7  ;  x.  13,  1 6  ;  Rev.  x.  4  ;  xiv.  13. 

3  banned :  The  root  rp:  means   "  to   reprimand,"  but   the   passive 
participle   is   generally  used  of  being  "  placed  under  the   ban "   or 
"excommunicated."     There  is  a  play  on  the  word  here,  viz.  naziiph, 
"  banned,"  and  nez(ein  be-}aph,  "  a  nose-ring  in  the  snout." 

4  As  a  golden  .  .  . :  Prov.  xi.  22. 

5  And  the  tables  .  .  .:  Exod.  xxxii.  16.        graven:  nnn,  Charuth, 
from  the  root  rnrr. 

6  read  not :  "  The  exegetical  device  npn  to,  '  Read  not '  so,  but  so, 
is  often  used  in  the  Talmud  when  it  is  desired  to  attach  a  precon 
ceived  idea  to  a  Scriptural  expression  by  way  of  pvripotrwov.     The 
np-n  to  is  not  to  be  taken  as  evidence  that  an  actual  various  reading 
was  current.     The  words  to  which  it  is  prefixed  are  confessedly  the 
true  reading,  with  which  the  darshan  ['  interpreter']  makes  free  for  a 
special  purpose  "  (Taylor). 

7  Cheruth  :  "  freedom,"  from  the  root  -nn  n.;  see  note  on  ii.  19.     It 
is  obvious  that  the  text  was  unpointed. 

vi  77 

for  thou  wilt  find  no  free-man  but  he  is  occupied  with  the 
learning  of  the  Torah ;  and  whosoever  is  occupied  in  the 
learning  of  the  Torah,  behold,  such  a  one  exalts  himself, 
as  it  is  said  :  '  And  from  Mattanah  to  Nachaliel,  and 
from  Nachaliel  to  Barnoth.' "  l 

3.2  (3)  "  He  who  learns  from  his  associate  one  chapter,"  or  one 
precept,4  or  one  verse,5  or  only  one  letter,6  is  bound  7  to 
show  him  honour.  For  so  we  find  it  in  David,  king  of 
Israel,  who  learned  from  Ahithophel  only  two  things,  and 
he  called  him  8  his  master,9  his  teacher,  and  his  friend  ; 
as  it  is  said :  '  But  it  was  thou,  a  man  mine  equal,  my 
teacher  and  my  friend.' 10  And  is  there  not  (here)  an 
argument n  from  the  less  to  the  greater  ? 12  (Namely) 

I  And  from  Mattanah  .  .  .:  Num.  xxi.  19.    To  the  Hebrew  reader 
this  quotation  is  far  more  appropriate  than  appears  at  first  sight,  on 
account  of  the  meaning  of  these  proper  names  ;  lit.  translated  the 
quotation  reads  :    "  From  a  gift  to  a   heritage  of  God,  and  from  a 
heritage  of  God  to  the  heights  "  (i.e.  of  Heaven). 

-  This  presumably  begins  a  new  saying  of  R.  Jehoshua,  but  the 
character  of  what  follows  belongs  to  a  later  period. 

3  one  chapter  .  .  . :   This   shows   that  there   was   some  definite 
division  of  the  Biblical  text  into  chapters,  sections,  and  verses  ;  what 
the  original  system  was  is  not  known  ;  the  only  remains  of  it  are  the 
names  of  sections  given  to  them  from  the  opening  words  ;  this  applies 
to  the  special  lessons  from  the  Pentateuch  and  the  Prophetical  books 
as  arranged  in  the  Synagogue  services.     The  present  chapter  and 
verse  divisions  in  the  O.T.  are  of  Christian  origin.    The  Hebrew  word 
for  "  chapter"  is  perek  (properly  "section")  ;  for  " verse," pasitk  (from 
the  root  meaning  "to  divide  "). 

4  precept :  halakah  ;  evidently  this  might  comprise  more  than  one 

5  verse  :  Two  MSS.  add  :  "or  one  saying,"  and  so  below. 

6  letter :  lit.  "  sign." 

7  is  bound  :  -ns  means  one  who  is  under  the  necessity  of  doing 

8  he  called  him :  Some  authorities  :  "and  he  made  him,"  and  so  below. 

9  his  master  :  lit.  "  his  Rabbi." 

10  But  it  was  thou  .  .  .:  Ps.  lv.  14  (Hebr.). 

II  argument:  lit.  "words"  or  "things." 

12  from  the  less  to  .  .  . :   The  argument  a  minori  ad  majus  •   cp, 
Luke  xi.  13  ;  xii.  28  ;  Rom.  v.  17. 

78  vi 

since  David,  king  of  Israel,  who  learned  from  Ahithophel 
only  two  things,  made  him  his  master,  his  teacher,  and 
his  friend,  how  much  more  l  is  he  who  learns  from  his 
associate  one  chapter,  or  one  precept,  or  one  verse,  or 
only  one  letter,  bound  to  show  him  honour  !  And  (by) 
*  honour '  (is  meant)  nothing  but  the  Torah,  as  it  is  said  : 
'The  wise  shall  inherit  honour,'2  'And  the  peifect 
shall  inherit  good.'3  And  there  is  no  good  but  the 
Torah,  as  it  is  said  :  '  For  I  will  give  you  good  doctrine ; 
forsake  ye  not  My  Torah.'  "  4 

4/'  (4)  "This  is  the  way  of  the  Torah :  A  morsel  of  bread  with  salt6 
shalt  thou  eat,  '  and  water  by  measure  shalt  thou  drink,' 7 
and  on  the  ground  shalt  thou  sleep,  and  a  life  of  weariness 
shalt  thou  lead,  and  in  the  Torah  shalt  thou  labour.  If 
thou  doest  thus,  '  Happy  shalt  thou  be,  and  it  shall  be 
well  with  thee ' ; 8  '  happy  shalt  thou  be '  in  this  world, 
'and  it  shall  be  well  with  thee '  in  the  world  to  come." 

5.  (5)  "Seek  not  greatness  for  thyself,  and  covet  not  honour": 
"  Practise  more  than  thou  learnest "  ; 9  and  "  Lust  not 
after  the  table  of  kings,  for  thy  table  is  greater  than  their 
table,  and  thy  crown 10  is  greater  than  their  crown  ;  and 
faithful  is  He  who  is  the  Master  of  thy  work,  who  will 
recompense  thee  the  reward  of  thy  work."  n 

6.12  (6)  "  Greater  is  Torah  than  the  priesthood  and  the  kingdom : 

1  how  much  more  :  rraai  TOD,  lit.  "  like  what  and  like  what  ?" 

-  The  wise  shall .  .  .:  Prov.  iii.  35. 

:i  And  the  perfect .  .  .:  Prov  xxviii.  10. 

4  For  I  will  give  .  .  .:  Prov.  iv.  2. 

J  This  is  probably  a  new  saying,  the  author  being  anonymous. 

(;  A  morsel  .  .  .:  i.e.  a  poor  man's  fare. 

7  and  water  .  .  .:  Ezek.  iv.  11. 

s  Happy  shalt  thou  be  .  .  .:  Ps.  cxxviii.  2. 

!>  Practise  more  .  .  .:  cp.  the  second  saying  in  i.  17. 

0  thy  crown :  i.e.  the  crown  of  the  Torah  ;  see  iv.  17. 

11  and  faithful  is  He  ...  thy  work :  Quoted  verbally  from  ii.  20. 

12  Again  an  anonymous  saying :  cp.  iv.  17. 

vi  79 

for  the  kingdom  is  acquired  by  thirty  degrees,1  and  the 
priesthood  by  twenty  four  ;  but  the  Torah  is  acquired  by 
forty-eight  things,  and  they  are  these  :  by  learning  with 
attentive  ear,2  by  preparation  of  the  lips,3  by  a  discerning 
heart,4  by  dread,  by  fear,  by  meekness,  by  joy,5  by 
waiting  upon  the  wise,  by  careful  discussion  with 
associates,  by  subtle  argument  with  disciples,  by  diligent 
recourse  6  to  Scripture  and  Mishnah  :  with  little  worldly 
business,7  with  little  sleep,  with  little  talk,8  with  little 
luxury,  with  little  laughter,9  with  little  secular  occu 
pation  ; 10  by  longsuffering,  by  kind-heartedness,  by  trust 
in  the  wise  men,  by  (resigned)  acceptance  of  chastise 
ments.  He  who  knows  his  place,11  who  rejoices  in  12 
his  lot,  who  puts  a  restraint 13  upon  his  words,  who 
claims  no  merit 14  for  himself,  who  is  beloved,  who  loves 

I  degrees :  lit.  "  steps."     With  the  form  of  the  enumeration  which 
follows  cp.  2  Cor.  vi.  4-10  ;  xi.  23-27. 

-  with  attentive  ear:  lit.  "with  the  hearing  of  the  ear";  the 
traditional  teaching  of  the  Torah  was  given  by  word  of  mouth,  so  one 
learned  by  hearing,  not  by  reading,  though  after  the  Mishnah  had 
been  redacted  this  was  of  course  read. 

3  by  preparation  of  the  lips  :  i.e.  for  the  purpose  of  repeating  what 
was  taught. 

4  discerning  heart :  The  heart  was  regarded  as  the  seat  of  under 

5  by  joy  :  One  MS.  adds  :  "  by  pureness." 

6  by  diligent  recourse  :  lit.  "  by  sitting." 

7  worldly  business  :  lit.  "traffic,"  from  the  root  -ire,  "to  go  round," 
"  to  be  busied";  cp.  ii.  5. 

8  with  little  talk :  Two  MSS.  omit. 

II  laughter :  or  "jesting";  cp.  Eph.  v.  4. 

10  secular  occupation  :  lit.  "  way  of  the  earth  "  (p«  -p)  ;  see  note 
on  ii.  2  ;  the  difference  between  this  and  "worldly  business"  above  is 
that  this  latter  refers  to  trade,  the  other  to  intercourse  with  others. 

11  He  who  knows  his  place  :  Some  words,  such  as  "the  Torah  is 
acquired  by  him,"  must  be  mentally  supplied. 

'-  who  rejoices  in  .  .  .:  i.e.  one  who  is  contented. 

13  who  puts  a  restraint .  .  .:  lit.  "who  makes  a  fence  (re,  cp.  \.  i) 
to  his  words." 

14  who  claims  no  merit .  .  .:  cp.  ii.  8  and  note. 

So  vi 

God,1  who  loves  mankind,  who  loves  almsgiving,2  who 
loves  guidance,8  who  loves  uprightness,  who  cares  not  * 
for  honours,  who  is  not  proud5  of  his  learning,  who 
does  not  glory  in  a  decision,6  who  helps  to  bear  the 
yoke 7  with  his  associate,  and  who  inclines  to 8  the  scale 
of  merit,  who  establishes  him9  upon  the  truth,  who 
establishes  him  upon  peace,  who  sets  himself  calmly10  to 
his  study,  who  asks11  and  answers,  who  hearkens  and 
adds  (to  what  is  said),  who  learns  for  the  purpose  of 
teaching,  who  learns  for  the  purpose  of  practising,  who 
makes  his  teacher12  wise,  who  marks  carefully  what  he 
has  heard,  and  who  utters 13  a  saying  in  the  name  of  him 
who  said  it ;  behold,  thou  hast  learned 14  (that)  whosoever 

1  who  is  beloved.  .  .  God:   cp.  ii.   13  ;  the  word  for  "God"  is 
again  Makom. 

2  almsgiving:  lit.  "righteousness";  cp.  note  on  v.  15. 

"  who  loves  guidance  :  This  is  what  the  phrase  means  ;  the  word 
for  "guidance"  is  lit.  "rebukes"  or  the  like! 

4  who  cares  not :  lit.  "  who  keeps  at  a  distance  from." 

5  who  is  not  proud  .  .  .:  lit.  "  who  is  not  puffed  up  in  his  heart." 

0  who  does  not  glory  .  .  . :  lit.  "  who  does  not  rejoice ";  the 
"  decision  "  (mmn)  refers  to  an  accepted  halakic  or  legal  interpreta 
tion.  Two  MSS.  add:  "and  who  does  run  after  (lit.  'pursue') 

7  who  helps  to  bear  the  yoke  :  i.e.  the  yoke  of  the  Torah  ;   cp. 
iii.  6  ;   for   the  construction  NOT  bun  cp.  Job  vii.  13,  >i3«jo  -rrlra   N\L«, 
"  My  couch  shall  ease  my.complaint  ";  the  force  of  n  ««« is  "  shall  bear 
together  with,"  i.e.  shall  help  to  bear  ;  so  in  the  words  before  us,  "he 
who  helps  to  bear  the  yoke";   how  he   does  this  is  shown  in   the 
words  that  follow. 

8  who  inclines  to  .  .  .:  See  note  on  ii.  2. 

9  who  establishes  him.  .  .:  lit.  "who  causes  him  to  stand";  cp. 
\.  1 8. 

10  who  sets  himself  calmly :  This  seems  to  be  the  force  of  afro, 
a  non-Biblical  form  ;  two  MSS.  unnecessarily  add  "his  heart." 

11  who  asks  .  .  . :  cp.  v.  9. 

12  his  teacher  :  lit.  "  his  Rabbi." 

3  who  utters  .  .  .:  i.e.  who  gives  out  as  his  own  something  that 
he  has  learned  from  another. 

14  behold,  thou  hast  learned :  What  follows  is  a  quotation  from 
T.B.  Chullin  104  b  (Herford). 

vi  8 1 

utters  a  saying  in  the  name  of  him  who  said  it  brings 
redemption *  to  the  world,  as  it  is  said  :  *  And  Esther 
told  it  to  the  king  in  the  name  of  Mordecai."' 

7.  (7)  "Great  is  Torah,  which  gives  life  to  those  who  practise  in 
this  world  and  in  the  world  to  come,  as  it  is  said :  '  For 
they  are  life  unto  those  that  find  them,  and  health 
to  all  their  flesh  ' ; 2  and  it  says  (further) :  '  It  shall  be 
health  to  thy  navel,  and  marrow  to  thy  bones';3  it 
says  also:  'She  is  a  tree  of  life  to  them  that  lay  hold 
upon  her,  and  happy  is  everyone  that  retaineth  her '  ; 4 
it  says  also  :  '  For  they  shall  be  an  ornament  of  grace 
unto  thine  head,  and  chains  about  thy  neck  ' ; 5  it  says 
also  :  '  She  shall  give  to  thine  head  an  ornament  of 
grace,  a  crown  of  glory  shall  she  deliver  unto  thee ' ; 6 
it  says  also  :  '  Length  of  days  is  in  her  right  hand,  and 
in  her  left  hand  riches  and  honour';7  it  says  also: 
'  For  length  of  days  and  years  of  life  and  peace  shall 
they  add  unto  thee.' "  8 

cS.  (S)  Rabbi  Simeon  ben  Menasia9  said  in  the  name  of10  Rabbi 

1  redemption :  geullak  ;  this  word  must,   of  course,  not  IDC  under 
stood  in  its  present-day  technical  meaning  ;  it  is  often  used  in  Rab 
binical  literature  in  the  sense  of  "  protection,"  and  that  is  probably 
what  it  means  here,  i.e.  he  who  hands  on  a  saying  of  his  teacher  is 
helping  many  others  in  the  world,  because  the  saying  in  question  is 
able  to  act  as  a  protection  against  evil  thoughts  or  acts.    The  quotation 
from  Esther  ii.  22,  which  follows,  bears  this  out. 

2  For  they  are  life  .  .  .:  Prov.  iv.  22. 

3  It  shall  be  health  .  .  .:  Prov.  iii.  8. 

4  She  is  a  tree  of  life  .  .  .:  Prov.  iii.  18. 
•"'  For  they  shall  be  .  .  .:  Prov.  i.  9. 

';  She  shall  give  .  .  .:  Prov.  iv.  9. 

7  Length  of  days  .  .  .:  Prov.  iii.  16. 

s  For  length  of  days  .  .  .:  Prov.  iii.  2.     Note  how  the  Torah  is 
implicitly  identified  with  Wisdom. 

9  R.  Simeon  ben  M.  :  He  lived  during  the  second  half  of  the  second 
century  A.D. 
10  in  the  name  of:  See  notes  on  ii.  10  ;  iii.  10. 


82  vi 

Simeon  ben  Jochai : x  "  Beauty,2  and  strength,  and 
wealth,  and  honour,  and  wisdom,  and  ripe  age,  and  old 
age,  and  children,  are  an  ornament2  for  the  righteous, 
and  an  ornament  to  the  world ;  as  it  is  said  :  *  The  hoary 
head  is  a  crown  of  beauty,  it  is  found  in  the  way  of 
righteousness ' ; 3  it  says  also  :  '  The  glory  of  young  men 
is  their  strength,  and  the  beauty  of  old  men  is  the  grey 
head ' ; 4  it  says  also  :  '  Sons'  sons  are  the  crown  of  old 
men,  and  the  glory  of  sons  are  their  fathers ' ; 5  it  says 
also :  '  Then  the  moon  shall  be  confounded,  and  the  sun 
ashamed,  when  the  Lord  of  Hosts  shall  reign  in  Mount 
Zion,  and  in  Jerusalem,  and  before  His  ancients 
gloriously/  "  6 

9.  Rabbi  Simeon  ben  Menasia  said :  "  These  seven  qualities 7 
which  the  wise  men  have  reckoned  (as  belonging)  to  the 
righteous  were  all  of  them  realised  in  Rabbi  and  his 
sons."  8 

10.  (9)  Rabbi  Jose  ben  Kisma9  said:  "Once  I  was  walking  in  the 
way,  and  a  man  met  me,  and  greeted  me,10  and  I  returned 
his  greeting.  He  said  to  me  :  *  Rabbi,  from  what  place 

1  R.   Simeon  b.   J.  :    He   lived  a   little  earlier,  middle  of  second 
century,  than  R.  Simeon  ben  M. 

2  Beauty ;  ornament :  These  two  words,  *o  and  nrc,  are  radically- 
connected  ;  "Beauty"  is  explained  as  consisting  of  "strength,  and 
wealth,  etc.";  these  constitute   the  ornament   called  "Beauty."     See 
note  on  next  verse. 

3  The  hoary  head  .  .  .:  Prov.  xvi.  31. 

4  The  glory  of.  .  .:  Prov.  xx.  29. 

6  Sons'  sons  .  .  .:  Prov.  xvii.  16. 

fi  Then  the  moon  .  .  . :  Is.  xxiv.  23. 

7  These  seven  qualities :  This  bears  out  what  is  said  in  the  note 
above  ("  Beauty  ;  ornament "),  for  the  qualities  mentioned  are  seven, 
and  these  constitute  "  Beauty."     The  word  for  "  qualities  "  is  middoth  ; 
on  this  see  note  on  v.  12. 

8  Rabbi  and  his  sons  :  See  note  on  ii.  i. 

9  R.  Jose  ben  K.  :  He  lived  early  in  the  second  century  A.D. 

10  greeted  me:  lit.  "gave  me  peace";  so,  too,  in  the  words  that 
follow,  lit.  "  I  returned  to  him  peace." 

vi  83 

art  thou?'  I  said  to  him:  'From  a  great  city  of  \\ise 
men  and  scribes1  am  I.'  He  said  to  me:  'Rabbi,  if 
thou  be  willing  to  dwell  with  us  in  our  place  I  will  give 
thee  a  thousand  thousand  dinars  of  gold,2  and  precious 
stones,  and  pearls.'  3  I  said  to  him  :  '  My  son,  if  thou 
gavest  me  all  the  silver  and  gold  and  precious  stones  and 
pearls  in  the  world  I  would  not  dwell  excepting  in  a 
place  of  the  Torah,4  since  in  the  hour  of  his  departure 
neither  silver  nor  gold  nor  precious  stones  nor  pearls 
accompany  him,  but  only  the  Torah  and  good  works,  as 
it  is  said  :  "  When  thou  goest  it  shall  lead  thee,  and 
when  thou  sleepest  it  shall  keep  thee,  and  when  thou 
awakest  it  shall  talk  with  thee."5  "When  thou  goest  it 
shall  lead  thee,"  (that  is)  in  this  world;  "and  when  thou 
sleepest  it  shall  keep  thee,"  (that  is)  in  the  grave;  "and 
when  thou  awakest  it  shall  talk  with  thee,"  (that  is)  in 
the  world  to  come.  And  so  also  it  is  written  in  the  Book  of 
Psalms  by  the  hands  of  David,  king  of  Israel :  "  The  law 
of  Thy  mouth  is  better  unto  me  than  thousands  of  gold 
and  silver " ; 6  it  says  also  (elsewhere) :  "  The  silver  is 
Mine  and  the  gold  is  Mine,  saith  the  Lord  of  Hosts." ' "  7 

u.  (10)  Five8  possessions  hath  the  Holy  One — Blessed  be  He! — 
acquired  in  His  world,  and  they  are  these :  The  Torah 
is  one  possession,  the  heavens  and  the  earth  are  one 
possession,  Abraham  is  one  possession,  Israel  is  one 

1  Scribes  :  Sopherim  — 

-  dinars  of  gold  :  =  deiiarii  of  gold  ;  a  golden  denarius  was  worth 
25  silver  ones  ;  both  are  often  mentioned  in  the  Mishnah  ;  see  further 
Schiirer,  ii.  73  f. 

3  pearls  :   The  word  rro-ro  =  p-npyij\is  (cp.  papyapi^s} ;   it  is  used 
mostly  in  the  plural  ;  the  phrase  "white  as  a  pearl  (rvbno)"  occurs  in 
T.B.  Yoitia  75  a  (Jastrow)  ;  cp.  Matt.  xiii.  45,  46. 

4  a  place  of  the  Torah :  i.e.  a  place  where  the  Torah  was  taught  ; 
see  iv.  18. 

6  When  thou  goest .  .  .:  Prov.  vi.  22. 

c  The  law  of  Thy  mouth  .  .  .:  Ps.  cxi\.  72. 

7  The  silver  is  Mine  .  .  .:  Hag.  ii.  8. 

8  Five  :  One  MS.  reads  "four." 

G  2 

84  vi 

possession,  the  House  of  the  Sanctuary  is  one  possession. 
The  Torah  is  one  possession;  whence  (is  this  proved)? 
In  that  it  is  written:  'The  Lord  possessed  me  in  the 
beginning  of  His  way,  before  His  works  of  old.' 1  The 
heavens  and  the  earth  are  one  possession  ;  whence  (is 
this  proved)?  In  that  it  is  written:  'Thus  saith  the 
Lord,  The  heavens  are  My  throne,  and  the  earth  is  My 
footstool  ;  where  is  the  house  that  ye  build  unto  Me,  and 
where  is  the  place  of  My  rest  ?  '  2  It  says  also  :  '  O  Lord, 
how  manifold  are  Thy  works,  in  wisdom  hast  Thou  made 
them  all :  the  earth  is  full  of  Thy  possessions.'3  Abraham 
is  one  possession  ;  whence  (is  this  proved)  ?  In  that  it  is 
said  :  'And  he  blessed  him,  and  said,  Blessed  be  Abram 
of  the  Most  High  God,  possessor  of  heaven  and  earth.'4 
Israel  is  one  possession ;  whence  (is  this  proved)  ?  In 
that  it  is  written :  '  Till  Thy  people  pass  over,  O  Lord, 
till  the  people  pass  over  which  Thou  hast  possessed '  ; 5 
it  says  also :  '  To  the  saints  that  are  in  the  earth,  and  to 
the  excellent,  in  whom  is  all  my  delight.'  6  The  House 
of  the  Sanctuary  is  one  possession  :  whence  (is  this 
proved)  ?  In  that  it  is  written :  '  The  place,  O  Lord, 
which  Thou  hast  made  for  Thee  to  dwell  in  ;  the  sanc 
tuary,  O  Lord,  which  Thy  hands  have  established ; '  7  it 
says  also:  'And  He  brought  them  to  the  border  of  His 
sanctuary,  even  to  this  mountain,  which  His  right  hand 
had  possessed.' "  8 

12. 9  (u)  "  Whatsoever  the  Holy  One — Blessed  be  He  ! — created 

1  The  Lord  possessed  me  .  .  .:  Prov.  viii.  22.     The  Torah  again 
identified  with  Wisdom. 

2  Thus  saith  the  Lord  .  .  ,:  Is.  lx\i.  i. 

:  0  Lord,  how  manifold  .  .  .:  Ps.  civ.  24. 
4  And  he  blessed  him  .  .  .:  Gen.  xiv.  19. 
:t  Till  Thy  people  .  .  . :  Exod.  xv.  1 6. 
(i  To  the  saints  .  .  .:  Ps.  xvi.  3. 

7  The  place,  0  Lord  .  .  .:  Exod.  xv.  17. 

8  And  He  brought  them  .  .  .:  Ps.  Ixxviii.  54. 

9  Another  anonymous  saying. 

vi  85 

in  His  world,  He  created  only  for1  His  glory,  as  it  is  said: 
'  Everyone  that  is  called  by  My  name ;  for  I  have  created 
him  for  My  glory,  I  have  formed  him,  yea,  I  have  made 
him ' ; 2  it  says  also :  '  The  Lord  shall  reign  for  ever 
and  ever.'"3 

[In  Taylor's  edition  the  following  saying,  which  is  repeated 
at  the  end  of  each  of  the  six  chapters  in  the  Wilna  edition  of 
the  Talmud,  is  given  :  "  Rabbi  Chanania  ben  'Akashia  said  : 
'The  Holy  One — Blessed  be  He  ! — was  pleased  to  give  merit 
to  Israel  ;  therefore  He  multiplied  unto  them  Torah  and 
precepts,  for  it  is  said  :  "The  Lord  is  well  pleased  for  His 
righteousness'  sake  ;  He  will  magnify  the  Law,  and  make  it 
honourable"  (Is.  xlii.  21).'"] 

1  He  created  only  for  .  .  .:  lit.  kk  He  did  not  create  but  fo 
-  Everyone  that  is  called  .  .  .:  Is.  xliii.  7. 
3  The  Lord  shall  reign  .  .  .:  Kxod.  xv.  18. 


Aaron,  62 

disciples  of,  9 

the  peacemaker,  9 
Abba  Shaul,  22 
Ab  beth-din,  3,  4 
Abimelech,  62 
Abodah,  xiii,  2 
Abraham,  31,  40,  61,  83 

disciples  of,  72 

God's  possession,  84 

love  of,  62 

ram  of,  66 
Abtalion,  7 
Abuyah,  R.,  57 
Academy,  xvii,  4 
Accuser,  xii,  53,  59 
Acquisition  of  the  Torah,  74 
Adam,  61 
Advocate,  53 

Afflictions  of  the  righteous,  56 
Ages  of  man,  the,  73 
Ahithophel,  77,  78 
Akabiah  ben  Mahalaleel,  28 
Akiba,   R.,  xviii,   22,   31,   32,   33, 
35,  38,  40,  41,  43,  44,  47,  49, 

52,  53,  54 

Alexander  Jannseus,  6 
Alexandra  (Salome),  xvi,  6 
Alexandria,  54 
Almsgivers,  types  of,  69 
Almsgiving,  3,  20,  80 
Altar  of  hewn  stone,   reason  for 
prohibition  of,  65 

of  stone,  65 

the  brazen,  65 

wood  for  the,  63 
'Am  ha-aretz,  xiii,  6,  19,  39,  68 

PIR.  AB.  87 

Amnon,  70 

Amora,  56 

Angels,  44 

Anthropomorphic  thought,  61 

Antigonos,  3,  36 

Arbela,  5 

Argument  a  minori  ad  ma.jus,  77 

Arpachshad,  61 

Article,  omission  of  the  Hebrew  8 

Ashkenazic  Prayer  Book,  xix 

Asphalt,  dealer  in,  59 

Associate  in  study,  77 

behaviour  towards,  57 
Atonement,  44 

by  death,  18 

by  sickness,  45 

the  day  of,  50,  53,  62 

Babe  unborn,  66 
Balaam,  42 

Balancing  of  works,  40 
Ban,  76 

Banquet,  Messianic,  45 
Banqueti ng-hall,  56 
Bar  Cochba,  xviii 

rebellion  of,  39,  41 
Bar  Kappara,  51 
Bar  Mitzvah,  73 
Barnoth,  77 
Bartotha,  35 
Bath-Kol,  xiv,  76 
Bee-hive,  64 
Beer,  64 
Ben  Azzai,  48 
Ben  Bag-Bag,  74 
Ben  He-He,  74 
Ben  Illai,  54 


13en  Jochai,  55 
Ben  Sira,  xv,  45 
Ben  Zoma,  47,  48 
Berioili,  xii 
Beth  ha-Keneseth,  54 
Beth  ha-Midrash,  13,  70 
Between  the  suns,  63 
Bileam,  disciples  of,  72 
Boraiiha,  16 
Business-house,  44 

Cain,  33 

Caleb,  34 

Calf,  the  golden,  62 

Canaan,  the  land  of,  62 

Captivity,  55 

Chaber  (see  also  Associate),  6,  23 

Chakamim,  xii,  4,  8,  13,  37 

Chalaphtaof  Kephar-Chananiah,33 

Chanania  ben  'Akashia,  R.,  85 

Chananiah,  29 

ben  Teradyon,  R.,  30 
Chaninah  ben  Chakinai,  32 

ben  Dosa,  38 

Character,  four  types  of,  68 
Charash,  56 
Charuth,  76 

Chasid,  19,  22,  68,  69,  70 
Chasidim,  19 
Cheresh,  56 
Cheruth,  76 
Chuppah,  73 

Circumcision,  covenant  of,  62 
Cloud,  30 

Companionship    in    the   study   of 
the  Torah  (see  also  Chaber).  6 
Congregation,  34 
Correspondence     of     things     in 

heaven  and  earth,  38 
Court,  house  of  the,  4 
Courts,  provincial,  52 
Covenant  of  circumcision,  the,  62 
Creation,  the,  63 

God's  work  of,  61 

six   things   in^existence   before 
the,  42 

things  not  mentioned  at  the,  63 
Crown,  the,  51,  78 

Crown  of  a  good  name,  the   55 
of  kingship,  the,  55 
of  priesthood,  the,  xiv,  55 
of  Torah,  the,  xiv,  55 

Cycle,  the  seven-year,  68 

Dabar  acher,  57 
Daniel,  36 
Darshan,  76 
David,  7,  77,  78,  83 

hymn  of  thanksgiving  of,  35 
Day  of  Atonement,  50,  53,  62 
Death  an  atonement,  18,  45 

penalty,  67 
Decision,  judicial,  52 
Decrees  of  Moses,  55 
Dew  (ink),  58 
Demons,  63,  65 
Denarius,  golden,  83 
Dessert  after  meals,  47 
Destruction,  pit  of,  72 
Diamond,  65 
Din,  13 
Dinar,  83 

Disposition,  types  of,  69 
Divine  providence,  43 

retribution,  53 

Divisions  in  the  Biblical  text,  77 
Divorce,  restriction  of,  xvi,  6 
Doctrinal     standpoint     of     Pirke 
Aboth,  xv 

teaching,    sense    of    proportion 

in>  43 

Dosa  ben  Harkinas,  R.,  39 
Dosthai,  R.,  38,  56 

ben  R.  Jannai,  R.,  36,  37 

Earnest  (pledge),  xii,  43 

Earth,  the  mouth  of  the,  64 

Eber,  61 

'Edah,  34 

Eden,  Garden  of,  5,  72 

Education,  6 

Egypt,  62 

Eleazar,  R.,  27,  54 

ben  Arak,  R.,  22,  23 /, 

ben  Azariah,  R.,  45 

ben  Jehudah,  R.,  35 


Eleazar  Chasama,  R.,  46 

ha-Kappar,  59 

lia-Modai,  R.,  39 
Eliezer,  R.,  24 

ben  Hyrcanos,  R.,  21,  22 /. 

ben  Jacob,  R.,  36,  53 
Elisha  ben  Abuyah,  57 
El-Medije,  39 
Enoch,  6 1 
Enosh,  6 1 
Ensign,  62 
Ephod,  65 
Epicurean,  27 
Epispasmus,  40 
Essential  word  in  O.T.  quotation, 

34.  37 
Esther,  81 
Ethical  and  cosmic  processes 

related,  61 

Ethics  of  the  Fathers,  ix 
Evil  eye,  23,  72 

waters,  8 

Exaggerated  statements  in  Rab 
binical  writings,  32 
Excommunication,  76 
Exile,  going  into,  55 
Eye,  evil,  23,  24,  72 

good,  23,  72 

of  a  needle,  53 
Ezra,  i,  36 

False  swearing,  52 
Father  in  heaven,  our,  40,  72 
Fence,  2,  79 
Fez,  the  Jews  of,  xix 
Fibre,  58 
Flint,  65 
Flood,  the,  61 

Formula  for  introducing  a  com 
parison,  46 

in  quoting  the  O.T.,  30 
Foxes,  a  head  to,  56 
Free-will,  doctrine  of,  43 
Fringes,  47 
Funnel,  70 
Future,  form  of  expressing  the,  29 

Gamliel  (?),  11,  12 

Gamliei  I.,  ix 

II.,  xvii,  4,  45 

III.,  16,  18,  54 
Garden  of  Eden,  5,  72 
Geburah,  74 
Gehinnom,  5,  72 
Gemara,  54 
Gematria,  47 

Gentiles,  conversion  of  the,  10 
Geullah,  81 
Gilgal,  19 
Glory  of  God,  30 
Gnostic,   Elisha    ben    Abuyah   a, 

God  compared  with  a  broker,  44 

glory  of,  30 

"  they  "  used  for,  49,  50 
God's  gifts  to  man,  44 
Golden  calf,  the,  62 
Golgotha,  xii 
Good  eye,  23,  72 

name,  the  crown  of  a,  55 

works,  40,  57,  80 

and  repentance,  53 
Grace,  43 

act  of,  41 

at  meals,  31 

Christian    development    of   the 
doctrine  of,  44 

doctrine  of,  28 

the  world  judged  by,  44 
Great  Synagogue,  the,  xv,  i 
Greek  words  Hebraised,  xii 
Gftf.  13 
Gulgoleth,  19 

Hadrian,  xviii,  39 
Hagar,  casting  out  of,  62 
Halakah,  9,  40,  66,  67,  77 

meaning  of,  47 
Halakic  interpretation,  80 
Halakoth,  essentials  of,  467. 
Ha-mo'adoth,  39 
Handiwork,  7 
Ha-'Olam  ha-ba,  xii,  20 
Ha-'Olam  ha-zeh,  xii,  20 
Head  to  foxes,  a,  56 
Heart,  a  good,  23 

Heart,  the  seat  of  the  under 
standing,  79 

Heaven  and  earth,  correspondence 
of  things  in,  38 

Hereafter,  judgement  in  the,  59 

Heretical  teaching,  8 

Herod  the  Great,  9 

High-priest  the  head  of  the 
Sanhedrin,  3 

Hillel,  ix,  xvi,  xvii,  18,  20,  51,  71, 

called  ha-Zaken,  15 

genealogy  of,  14 

house  of,  9,  ii 

teaching  of,  9/. 
Holy  One,  the,  83,  84 

Spirit,  the,  76 
Horcb,  Mount,  76 
House  of  judgement,  67 

of  learning,  4 

types    of    character     among 
those  who  frequent  the,  70 

meeting,  54 

study,  13 

the  court,  4 

the  Sanctuary,  84 

Idol's  temple,  flesh  from,  32 
Ikkarim,  13 

Incommunicable  Name,  the,  50 
Indwelling,  divine,  30 
Ingathering,  the  feast  of,  68 
Ink,  58 

Interpretation,  halakir,  80 
Interpreter,  76 

of  the  Law,  56 
Irbid,  5 
Isaac,  offering  up  of,  62 

Bar  Shelomoh,  15,  37 
Ishmael,  R.,  40,  5O/. 

repudiation  of,  62 
Israel,  83 

God's  possession,  84 

of  Toledo,  15 

Israelites,  the  people  of  the  Law, 

Jabneh,  21,  45 

Jacob,  R.,  36,  56 
acob's  ladder,  47 
amnia,  Academy  of,  xvii,  21 
annai,  R.,  36,  56 
ared,  61 

ehoshua  ben  Levi,  R.,  76 
Jehuda  ben  Tema,  72 
Jehudah,  R.,  54 
ha-Nasi,  xviii 
Jerobeam,  71 
Jewish-Christians,  27 
Liturgy,  26,  31,  32 
quotation  from,  18 
Jochanan    ben    Zakkai,    ix,    xvii, 
20,  21,  22,  33,  38,  39,  50,  53 
parable  of,  xvii/. 
ben  Berokah,  R.,  49 
the  Sandal-maker,  R.,  54 
Johannine  theology,  31 
Jonathan,  71 

R.,  52 
Jose,  R.,  51 

ben    Jehudah   of    Kephar    ha- 

Babli,  58 
ben  Jochanan,  4 
ben  Joezer,  3 
ben  Kisma,  R.,  82 
the  priest,  R.,  21,  22  ff. 
Josephus,  i,  2,  3,  27,  31,  36 
Joshua,  i,  34 

ben  Chananiah,  R.,  21,  22 
ben  Perachiah,  5 
Jubilee,  year  of,  67 
Judah  ben  Tabai,  6 
ha-Nasi,  15,  28 
udaism,  21 

udgement,  house  of,  67 
udges  of  tribunals,  52 
udicial  decision,  52 
ustice,  71 

Kabbalah,  i 
Kenan,  61 
Kenisah,  54 
Kephar  'Asis,  40 

ha-Babli,  58 
Kibroth-hattaavah,  62 
King  of  the  kings  of  kings,  60 

Kingdom  of  Heaven,  the  yoke  of, 


Kingship,  the  crown  of,  55 
Kinnin,  46 

Kinyan  ha-Torah,  x,  74 
Kodashim,  39 
Korah,  71 
Koran,  73 

Lamech,  61 

Law  and  eternal  life,  20 

carrying  out  of  the,  38 

interpreter  of  the,  56 

knowledge  of  the,  38 

people  of  the,  42 

spoken  of  as  a  crown,  10 

studied  by  God,  n 

study  of  the,  n,  17,  38,  39,  47 

the  portion  of  the,  73 

transgression  of  the,  25 
Lawyers,  the,  xii 
Legal  requirements,  12 
Legends  of  the  Jews,  62 
Lessons    in    the    Synagogue    ser 
vices,  77 

Le vitas  of  Jabneh,  R.,  49 
Light  of  head,  40 
Lilin,  66 

Lions,  a  tail  to,  56 
Loaves,  63 
Logos,  30 

Longsuffering  of  God,  61 
Love,  different  kinds  of,  70 /. 
Lydda,  39,  76 

Maccabaean  family,  39 

Mahalaleel,  61 

Maimonides,  xix,  61,  62 

Thirteen    Principles    of     Faith 
of,  13 

Makom  (Name  for  God),  24,  26, 
32,  42,  75,  80 

Malkuth,  33 

Mammon,  xii 

meaning  of,  in  Rabbinical  writ 
ings,  25 

Manna,  62,  65 

Marah,  62 

Marriage,  age  for,  73 

Massorah,  41 

Massoretic  text,  i 

Mathiah  ben  Charash,  R.,  56 

Mattanah,  77 

Mazzikin,  63,  65 

Mediator,  31 

Meir,  R.,  x,  34,  37,  41,  53,  57,  75 

Memra,  30 

identified  with  the  Torah,  42 
Merit,  21,  71,  75,  85 

of  the  fathers,  17 
Messiah,  the,  xviii 

Bar  Cochba  regarded  as  the,  4 1 
Messianic  banquet,  the,  xiii 

future,  the,  29 
Methuselah,  61 
Middah,  74 
Middoth,  68,  82 
Mikra,  73 
Minyan,  34 
Miriam,  64 
Mishnah,  xviii,  19,  36,  37,  54,  65,79 

additions  to  the,  15 

age  for  study  of  the,  73 
Mishnath  ha-Chasidim,  xi 
Mishnic  collection  begun  by  R. 

Akiba,  41 
Mitzvah,  15,  21 
Modin,  39 
Mo'ed,  39 
Mordecai,  81 
Moses,  i,  26 

decrees  of,  55 

murmuring  against,  62 

sepulchre  of,  66 

the  righteous,  71 
Mount  Horeb,  76 

Sinai,  47 

Zion,  82 
Mouth  of  the  earth,  6.j 

she-ass,  64 

well,  64 

Nachaliel,  77 
Nahor,  61 

Name,  an  enduring,  55 
good,  crown  of  a,  55 


Name,  in  the,  23 

of,  saying  in  the,  So/. 

of  God,  profanation  of  the,  49  /. 
substitute  for  the,  28 

profanation  of  the,  67 

the,  49 

the  incommunicable,  50 
Nasi,  3,  4 

Nechuniah  ben  ha-Kanah,  R.,  33 
Needle's  eye,  53 
Nehorai,  R.,  55 
Nejar  (paper),  58 
New  Year's  Day,  53 
Nezikin,  ix 
Niddah,  46 
Nittai  the  Arbelite,  5 
Noah,  6 1 
Nysa,  36 

Oil  used  for  making  ink,  58 

Olive  oil,  58 

'Omer,  63 

Omission  of  the  article  in  Hebrew, 

Onkelos,  Targum   of,    quotations 

from,  64 

Oral  Law,  the,  xvi,  37 
Orders  of  the  Mishnah,  ix 

Paper,  58 

Papyrus,  58 

Parable,  a,  82 /. 

Passover,  the, "39 

Pasuk,  77 

Paul,  St.,  54 

Pauline  teaching,  43 

Peace,  form  of  greeting,  56,  82 

Peleg,  6 1 

People    of    the    land     (see    also 

'Am  ha-aretz),  19 
Perek,  77 

of  R.  Meir,  x 
Personality  of  God,  43 
Pharaoh,  62 

Pharisaic    interpretation    of    the 
Law,  xvi/. 

party,  xvi 

Pharisee,  a  priest,  an  example  of, 

Philo,  i,  57 

Pillar  of  smoke,  63 

Pirke  Aboth,  anonymous   sayings 

in,  x 

authors  of,  xvff. 
character  of,  ix# 
contents  of,  ixj/. 
doctrinal  standpoint  of,  xv 
ethical-religious  sayings  in.  x 
fathers  mentioned  in,  x 
humanness  of  the  writers  of,  x 
importance  of,  for  N.T.  study, 

in  the  Jewish  Liturgy,  x/. 

manuscripts  of,  xix 

part  of  the  Wisdom  Literature, 

reminiscent    of    Ben   Sira  and 
Proverbs,  x 

title  of,  ix 

Pit  of  destruction,  72 
Pitcher,  58 

Poor,  the  tithe  of  the,  68 
Porch,  56 
Prayer  a  means  of  grace,  26 

Book,  Ashkenazic,  xix 
Predestination,  doctrine  of,  43 
Priesthood,  the  crown  of,  xiv,  55 

a  royal,  xiv 
Profanation  of  the  Name  of  God, 

49,  67 

Proselytism,  10 
Prosperity  of  the  wicked,  56 
Providence,  divine,  43 
Provincial  courts,  52 
Psalm    of     thanksgiving   in    Ben 
Sira,  60 

Quotations   from   O.T.,    form   of, 

in  Rabbinical  writings,  30 

Rab,  6 

Rabban,  n,  15 
Rabbanuth,  8 
Rabbi,  xii,  58,  59 


"  Rabbi  "  (Judah  ha-Nasi),  xviii, 
15,  28,  82 

Rabbinical  law,  39 

utterances  often  paradoxical,  iS 

Rainbow,  the,  65 

Ram  of  Abraham,  the,  66 

Rashi,  35 

Rashnth,  43 

"  Read  not,"  an  exegetical  device, 

Reckoning,  the,  59 

Red  Sea,  legends  of,  in  Rabbinical 
writings,  62 

Relationship    between    God    and 
man,  43 

Religious  education,  xvi 

Repentance,  56,  71 
and  good  works,  53 
teaching  on,  in  Rabbinical  writ 
ings,  53 

Rephidim,  62 

Retribution,  divine,  53 

Reu,  61 

Righteous,  afflictions  of  the,  56 

Righteousness,  69,  71,  80 

Ritual  washing  of  hands,  xvii 

Rock,  the,  64 

Rod  of  Moses,  the,  65 

Rome,  56 

Royal  priesthood,  a,  xiv 

Ruchin,  66 

Sabbath,  the,  62,  63 

sun,  the,  63 

Sabbatical  year,  the,  67 
Sacrifices  for  the  dead,  32 

offered  to  idols,  32 
Sadducees,  the,  xvi 
Sag  an,  29 
St.'  Paul,  64 
Saints,  19 

Salome  (Alexandra),  xvi,  6 
Samuel  the  Small,  57 
Sanctuary,  the  house  of  the,  84 

ten  wonders  wrought  in  the,  62 
Sandal-maker,    R.  Jochanan  the, 

Sanhedrin,  2,  3 

head  of  the,  3,  4 

the  Great,  52 
Sarah,  62 

Sayings  of  the  fathers,  ix 
Schiller  quoted,  48 
Scholars,  types  of,  69 
Scribes,  xii,  2,  83 
Scriptural     quotations     in     Rab 
binical  writings,  34  f. 
Scriptures,  age  for  reading  the,  73 
Sea,  the  Red,  62 
Sedarim,  ix 
Serug,  61 
Seth,  6 1 

Shalom,  xiii,  56,  82 
Shamir,  65 
Shammai,  xvi,  21,  71 

house  of,  n 

teaching  of,  gf. 
She-ass,  mouth  of  the,  64 
Shedim,  66 

Shekhinah,  xiv,  30.  31,  34 
Shelah,  61 
Shem,  6 1 

ha-mephoresh,  50 
Shema1,  26 
Shemaiah,  7 
Shemitta,  67 
Sheol,  60,  64 
Shewbread,  63 
Shield,  xii 
Shoemaker,  54 
Shool,  39 

Sickness  an  atonement,  45 
Sidon,  32 
Sieve,  70 
Sign,  62 
Simeon  I.,  2 

II.,  ix,  xv 

ben  Eleazar,  57 

ben  Jochai,  R.,  31,  55,  82 

ben  Menasia,  R  ,  81 

ben  Nathanael,  22,  23/.,  26 

ben  Shetach,  xvi,  6,  7,  31 

son  of  Gamliel,  12 

the  Just,  ix,  xv,  2 
Sin,  the  wilderness  of,  62 

Sinai,  Mount,  47 

Skull,  19 

Smoke,  pillar  of,  63 

Soclio,  3 

Soldiers  in  the  battle-line,  63 

Solomon's  Temple,  65 

Song  of  the  well,  the,  64 

Soot  used  for  making  ink,  58 

Sophenm,  xii,  83 

Souls  in  Heaven,  13 

Sponge,  70 

Studying  in  company  with  others, 

Substitute  for  the  Name  of  God, 


Succoth,  feast  of,  68 
Suns,  between  the,  63 
Swearing,  false,  52 
Synagogue,  54 
use  of,  39 

Taberah,  62 

Tabernacle,  the,  64 

Tabernacles,  feast  of,  39,  68 

Tables,  the,  65 

Tail  to  lions,  a,  56 

Talmud,  the,  54 

age  of  study  of  the,  73 
Wilna  edition  of  the,  85 

Tamar,  70 

Tanna,  36 

Tannaim,  3 

Targum  of  Onkelos,  the,  64 

Tarphon,  R.,  27 

Temple,  the,  63 
—service,  the,  2 
walls  white  as  snow,  22 

Temptations  of  Abraham,  61 

Ten  men  forming  a  congregation, 
origin  of,  34 

Tendency,  the  evil,  25 

Tent  of  meeting,  the,  64 

Terah,  61 

Teshubah,  53 

Tetragrammaton,  the,  50 

Text,  unpointed,  76 

Theology,  Johannine,  31 

Tithe  of  the  poor,  the,  68 

Tobiah,  6 
Tongs,  66 
Torah,  2,  23,  27,  30,  31,  32,  50, 

.51,  53 
a  jewel,  42 
a  place  of  the,  55,  83 
a  precious  instrument,  42 
acquired  by  forty-eight  things, 


and  Memra  identified,  42 
called  Tushiyyah,  75 
crown  of  the,  xiv,  55,  78 
despising  the,  76 
divine  origin  of  the,  27 
exaggerated  veneration  for  the, 


existence  of,  before  the  Creation, 

fulfilling  the,  52 

greatness  of  the,  78 

honouring  the,  51 

identified  with  Wisdom,  42,  84 

intricacies  of  the,  55 

learning  of  the,  77 

life-giving,  Si 

meaning  of  the  word,  i 

study  of  the,  54 
reward  for,  75 

taught  by  word  of  mouth,  79 

the  acquisition  of  the,  74 

the    expression    of    the    divine 
mind,  42 

the  possession  of  God,  83  /. 

the  secrets  of  the,  75 

the  wrater  of  life,  4 

the  way  of  the,  78 

the  world  created  by  the,  42 

use  of  the,  50 

works  of  the,  50 

yoke  of  the,  xiv,  33,  80 
Tosephta,  16,  38 
Tradition  of  the  fathers,  i 
Transgressions  of  the  Law,  25 

seven  kinds  of,  66  f. 
Tushiyyah,  75 
Twilight,  63 

Types  of  character  of  those  who 
sit  among  the  wise,  70 


Unborn  babe,  66 
Unpointed  text  of  O.T.,  76 

Vestibule,  this  world  a,  56 
Vow,  55 

Washing  of  hands,  ritual,  xvii 
Water,  figurative  use  of  the  word, 

Way,  xiii 

of  the  earth,  33,  45,  79 

the  evil,  24 

the  good,  15,  23 
Well,  64 

mouth  of  the,  64 
Wicked,  the  prosperity  of,  56 
Wilderness,  the,  62 
Wilna  edition  of  the  Talmud,  85 
Wine,  58 

as  a 'libation,  58 
Wisdom,  38,  45 

and   the   Torah  identified,    42, 

the  secondary  things  of,  47 

the  world  created  by,  42 
Wise  men  (see  Chakamim),  83 
Wood  for  the  altar,  63 
Word,  the,  42 
Word-play,  76 

Works,  38,  53 

balancing  of,  40 

efficacy  of,  28,  43 

evil,  40 

good,  40 
World    to    come,    the    (see    also 

Ha-'Olam  ha-ba),  xii,  20,  56 
Worldly  occupation,  16,  79 

of  Rabbis,  54 
Worm  (Shamir),  65 
Writing-tablet,  44 

Yeshibah,  4,  20 
Yetzer,  48,  60 

ha-ral,  25 

ha-tob,  25 
Yoke  of  the  Kingdom  of  Heaven, 

of  the  Torah,  xiv,  33,  80 

Zadok,  R.,  50 
Zakah,  71 
Zarethan,  3 
Zebub,  63 
Zecuth,  71,  75 

Aboth,  17 
Zedakah,  xiii,  69 
Zeredah,  3 
Zibbur,  17 
Zion,  Mount,  82 
Zugoth  (pairs),  3 





Exodus  (cont.) 



.     .     41 

xvi.  15  


v.  1-31  

.      .      61 

xvi.  20-27  

.        62 

VI.    «>  

.     .    25 

XVll.   2     ....... 

.        62 

Vlll.   21     

•     •    25 

XV111.  21,   24 

•      34 

ix   6 


xx   24    


ix.  13      

xx.  25    

.      65 

xi.  10-26     .... 

.       .      61 

XX111.    10-11           . 

6-,  68 

xii.  1-5         .      .      .      . 

.       .      61 

xxiii.  16       

.      68 

Xll.   IO      

.     .    62 

xxv.  30        

•      63 

xii.  i^ff. 

.     .    62 

XXXll.    I  

.      62 

xiv.  14  ff.     .      .      .      . 

.     .    62 

xxxii.  16      

.      76 

XIV.   19    

.    .   84 

xl.  34  ff.       

•      3° 

XVI.   2       

.     .    62 

xvn.  9-10    .... 

.     .    62 


xvin.  25       .... 

.     .    52 

i.  7    

•      63 

xix.  31   

.      .      16 

vni.  9     

•      55 

XX     2  ff 

.      .      62 

xii.  8       

.      46 

XXI.   IO     

.      .      62 

xv.  igff      

.     46 

xxn.  9-10    .... 

.      62,  63 

xix.  9     

.     68 

xxn.  13        .... 

.      .      66 

xix.  32  

•      55 

xxvu.  40      .... 

•      •      33 

xxi.  8     

•      55 

xxxi.  49       .... 

•      •     43 

xxiii.  10-14       .... 

•      63 

XXXll.   22        .... 

.      .      63 

xxm.  17       

•      63 

xxiv.  5-9     

.      63 


xxv.  1—7      

iv.  17      

.      .     65 

xxvi.  34  /.   

.      67 

Xll.    II       

Xll.   22      

•      •      35 


XIV.    II    

.      .      62 

IV     ^ 

•      73 

xv.  8      

.      .     62 

XI.    I  

.      62 

xv.  16-17    .... 


xi.  4  

.      62 

xv.  18    

.     85 


xv.  24    

.      .     62 

XIV.  22    

.      62 

XVI.  2       

.      .     62 

xiv.  27  

•      34 


Numbers  (com.) 


i   l\tngs 


XV.   20      

.        67 

11.  2  

.      .      16 

xv   37-41     

.        26 

vi.  7  

.      .      65 

xvi.  2&ff.     

.        64 

viii.  64   .      .      ... 

.      .      65 

xvi.  32  .      . 

.        64 

xi.  26            .      . 

•      •        3 

xxi.  1  6—  1  8  

.        64 

xiv.  6     


xxi.  iq  

•     77 

xv.  30    

.      .      71 

xxii.  28        

.     64 

XX.   IO      

.      .      50 

xxv.  2-3      

•     32 

xxi.  8     

xxvii.  18-22      .... 


2   Kings 


IX.    II        

•      •        4 

•     38 

i   Chron. 

vi.  4-9   
xi.  13-21      ...... 



ix.  15     
xxix.  14       .... 
xxix.  1  8       .... 

.      .      56 
•      -      35 

XIV.    I        

.     42 

xiv.  28  

.      68 

2  Chron. 

xvn.  15        
xxiv.  19       
xxvii.  6        
xxviii.  50     
xxxiii.  4       

•      55 


•      65 
•      73 
.      26 

iv.  17      
viii.  13   
xix.  7     
xx.  7      ..... 
xxxvi.  15,  1  6    . 

•      •        3 
•      •      39 
•      •      59 
.      .      62 

XXXlll.  21       

•      71 

xxxiv.  4       




i-.y-y     • 

.      .      65 


AV.^3       • 


.      .      16 

xxiv.  31        .... 


IV.  22 

ix.  34 



n.  7 

11.  30 
xiii.  20  . 
xvii.  i    . 


i   Sam. 

2  Sam. 



i.  i  . 
xvi.  3 
xix.  5 

11.  22         .... 


.    .    so 

viii.  3 
xiv.  9     .... 

.    .    .   67 

.       .      •      49 



xxix.  2^ 

.      40 

'•*,  3° 
.      84 

•      73 


Psalms  (cont.}  PAGE 

xix.  7 47 

xxii.  32 23 

xxv.  14        ......  75 

xxxiii.  6       ......  42 

xxxiii.  9       ....      *      .  60 

xxxiii.  13-15 16 

xxxiii.  15 59 

xxxiv.  12.  ff 9 

xxxiv.  15-16     ......  16 

xxxvii.  21 24 

Iv.  14 77 

Ixxiii.  12-13      .....  6 

Ixxiv.  5 5  T 

Ixxv.  7 52 

Ixxviii.  54 84 

Ixxxii.  i 34 

civ,  24 

civ.  34 


cvi.  28 32 

CXI.    10     . 

cxix.  72 
cxix.  99 
cxxiv.  3 
cxxviii.  2 
cxxxix.  1 6 





cxli.  9 16 

cxlvi.  3 17 

cxlviii.  9 42 


i.  7   .      .      . 
i.  9   •      •      • 
i.  12. 
iii.  2  . 
iii.  5. 

iii.  8.  .  . 
iii.  16,  1 8  . 

.      .      .      .  45 

.      .      .      .  81 

.      .      .      .  30 

.      .      .      .  81 

•      •      •      •  55 

.      .      .      .  8r 

.      .      .      .  81 

....  78 

iv.  2 42,  78 

iv.  9 55,  81 

iv.  22 81 

vi.  16 x,  60 

vi.  22 83 

viii.  14-15 75 

viii.  21 72 

viii.  22 84 

ix.  5 45 

Proverbs  (cont.}          PA(;K 

ix.  10 15 

x.  19 -13 

xi.  2 75 

xi.  22 76 

xi.  23 49 

xi.  31     ....            .'      •  5 

xiii.  3 36 

xv.  3 43 

xv.  33    ...            ...  45 

xvi.  31 

xvi.  32 48 

xvii.  16 82 

xvii.  28 13 

xviii.  4 22 

xx.  29 82 

xxii.  i 55 

xxii.  9 23 

xxiii.  6 24 

xxiv.  17-18 57 

xxv.  6 8 

xxviii.  10 78 

xxviii.  22 24 

xxix.  23 10 


iii.  1-8 49 

iv.  9 .   .   .  6 

vii.  i 20,  55 

vii.  27 59 

x.  17 28 

xii.  2 40 

xii.  13 45 

xii.  14 49 


11.  17       . 
vi.  2. 
viii.  19  . 
xxiv.  23 
xxv.  6    . 





xxvi.  3 25 

xxviii    1 8 
xxix.  4  . 
xxx.  28 
xxxii.  17 




XXXIII.  22 52 

xii.  8 



Isaiah  (cont.) 

xliii.  7    .... 

.     »5 
•     85 

li.  8  .       .       . 


xlix.  20        .... 
Iv.  1-3   .... 
Iv.  24      

•     63 

•     72 

m-  l6     16,  31 

.  35 

Jxvi.  i    . 

.     84 

v.  14       

•     25 


vn.  25    


xvii.  6,  8      . 

.     46 


xviii.  5-6     .... 

.     60 

i.  14  


xviii.  1  8       


v.  ii,  13      


xxix.  7  . 

•      30 

v.  23       


xxxi.  13       .... 

•      52 

vii.  5-6  


xxxi.  34       

•     59 

vii.  16    


xxxvi.  18     . 

•     58 

vn.  17    ... 


vui.  9     



ix.  9  


iii.  28     .... 

.       3! 

xiv.  8-1  o 


xv.  3      



xv.  14    


IV.    II        

.      78 

xvii.  28        


xvi.  25  

•      36 

xvii.  31        


xvi.  49  

.     68 

xviii.  19       ...... 


XVlll.  2    

•     58 

XIX.  2O    


xli.  22    .. 

•      32 

xx.  5-8        


XXI.  II    



XXV.   10           


v.  27      


xxx.  24        


Vll.   10      

.      16 

xxxi.  15       


xxxm.  14-15     



xxxvin.  3    


x.  14      .... 

XXXV111.  24-XXX1X.   II            . 


xli.  11-13    


11.  13      

.      26 

xli.  12-13     
xlii.  5     


iv.  33     

•      58 

1.  1-24   xv 
li.  12      



li.  29       


ix.  6,      



Mica  h 

i  Mace.  i.  15     


vi.  8  

11   1—5 


ix.  i   


xiii.  25     


i.  7    . 

3  Mace.  i.  3 



ll'isdoui  I..V.K  Enoch  (conl.)  ]..u,i 

viii.  22-^1  .... 


.      .      42 

lx.  7-8   



XIV.   21    .        .        . 

•  .      .      50 

Ixii.  14  


2  (4)  Esdras 

Test.  xii.  Patr. 

vi.  38     .      .      . 

.      .      42 

Levi  xviii.  ii    


vi.  49-52     .... 

•      •      45 

Sib.  Orac. 


Prorem  87  ...... 


IV.    I  

iii   746 


Syr.  Apoc.  Baruch 

xxv.  4-5      .... 

•      •      45 

xxix.  3-8     




Matthew  (cont.} 

»-  15      
ii.  17-18      .... 
iii.  3. 

•      •      35 
•      •      35 

xm.  45-46  
xiii.  47  ff.     

viv    X 


iii.  9. 


iii.  13-17      .      .      .      . 

.   xiv,  76 

xvii.  5    



v.  7  


xviii.  20       ...   xiv,  6,  30, 


v.  9  

v.  19       .... 
vi.  1-4  .... 

.      .      16 
.  xiii,  20 

xix.  24  
xix.  27  



vi.  5  


•VV       T    ff 

vi.  9  

xiii,  8,  72 


xx.  1-16      


vi.  22-23 

.      .      23 

xx.  15    


vi.  24     

.     xn,  25 

xx.  35    


vn.  1-5 

.      .      18 

xxiii.  8  


Vll.  2         ... 


xxiii.  12       


Vll.    12      . 


xxiii.  i  \       


vu.  13-14     .... 

.  xiii,    15 

xxiii.  15       5. 


vii.  24-27    .... 

.       .      46 

xxiii.  16-26       . 


Vlll     II     

•  xiv,  45 

xxiii.  34        xii 

lx-  37     

.      .      27 

xxvi.  3  


x.  13       

•      •      56 

xxvi.  29       xiv, 


x.  25      

•       5.   63 

xxvi.  49       


x.  41       

.      .      70 

xxvi.  55       


xi.  25     

•      •        4 

xxvi.  57       


xi.  29     

•      •      53 

xxvi.  66       xiii, 


xi.  29-30      .... 

.  xiv,   33 

xxvii.  23      


xn.  50    

.      .      18 

xxvii.  33      


Xlll.    12    


xxvii.  48      xii, 



vii.  2      



John  (cant.) 


VII.  21      

vii.  21-22    .... 

•       •      25 

viii.  53  
ix  4 

.  xiii,  61 

vii.  22    


xii.  28—30 

.      27 

ix.  i-n  
ix.  7  
x.  30      

.         .        76 

.   xiv,  76 
.    xii    20 

xiv.  6     . 

xiv.  16,    26. 
xv   26 

•      •      53 

x.  51       


xvi.  7     
xvii    10 

•      53 
•      •      53 

xii.  26    


xii.  29    
xvi.  15  

.     .     26 

.    xii,   10 

xviii.  12  ff.  . 
xx.  7 


•      •       3 



i.  63 xii,  44 

ii-  24 46 

ii-  41  ff 73 

"•46 4.  9 

iii.  21-22 76 

v.  32 53 

vi.  21,  25 52 

viii.  17 49 

ix.  35 76 

x.  5 xiii,  56 

xi-  13 77 

XI.  27 22 

xi.  39 44 

xii.  28 77 

xiv.  Sff.  .      .        xviii 

xiv.  12-14 4 

xv.  18 61 

xvi.  9 49 

xvi.  10 12 

xvi.  11-12 25 

xvi.  19 28 

i.  16.      . 
ii.  25 
v.  17  ff. 
v.  34       • 
v.  34-40 
vii.  i 
ix.  1-2   . 









ix.  3-7 xiv,  76 

x.  13,  16 xiv,  76 

xvii.  28 24 

xviii.  3 7,  54 

xviii.  26 xiii,  15 

xix.  9 xiii,  15 

xix.  23 15 

xx.  34 7 

xxii.  3    ....  xvii,  4,  15,  54 

xxii.  5 4 

xxiii.  2,  4 4 

xxiv.  i 4 

xxiv.  14 15 

xvi.  24  



xvm.  30       .... 

Xll,    2O 

i.  5  .      . 


i.  14.      . 



Xll,     10 

i.  i  ff.     

.      .     42 

ii.  6  .      . 


11.  24 


iv.  14     

.         4,  8 

iv.  2.      . 


iv.  27      

•      •        5 

IV     ^ 


VI.    II        

iv.  4.      . 


vii.  7      

.      .      18 

v.  17 


vii.  37    

.      .        8 

v.  19 


>      4-   75 

vii.  7ff. 


Romans  (cont.) 


Galatians                 PACK 

vii.  9-10      .... 

•      •        9 

ii.  16 


vn.  22—23    .... 

•      .     25 

iii.  16     . 


viii.  19  

.    xii,   10 

111.  22       . 


viii.  19-23  .... 

.      .     61 

iv.  27     . 


IX      XI 


iv   30 


ix   A 

'...     T"*5 

xiii    2 

ix.  s  .             .... 

.      .      60 


ix.  25      .      .       .      .      . 

•  xiii,  35 

i.  13-14. 

xii,  43 

XI.  2  

•  xin,  35 

1.  21. 

Xll,    20 

xi.  28     

•      •      17 

ii.  8-10  . 

28,  43 

xii.  16    

.      .        8 

iv.  6. 


xiii.  iff  

.      .      30 

iv.  8.      . 


xiv.  19  

.      .        9 

IV.  10       . 


xv.  7      

.      .      17 

iv.  28     . 


v.  4  .      . 


vi.  16     . 

xn,  53 

i  Corinthians 

i.  20  

.      xii,  4 


iii.  6  

.      .        8 

iv.  8.      . 


iii.  8  

•      74 



iv.  12     

•      •        7 

i.  15. 

xiii,  10 

vi.  18     

.      .      48 

111.  17 


VI.  20       


vii.  18    

.      .      40 



vii.  23    

•       •      44 

11.  19 

......       7 


.       .      32 

v.  10 


ix.  16     

.        21 

ix.  18     




ix.  27      

.      .      18 

iii.  8.      . 


x.  1-4     

.      .     64 

X.   12         

.  •    .      18 

i   Timothy 

x.  14       

.      .      48 

11.   1-2      . 


X.   21         

.      .      32 

x.  31       

.      .      26 

2  Timothy 

xi.  27      

.     Xlll 

11.  22 


xiii.  5     

.      .      24 

iv.  8. 


Xlll.   12    

•      .      59 

xv.  28    

.      .      24 


iv.  7.      . 


x.  25 


2  Corinthians 

xii.  14    . 


1.  22  

•    xn,  43 


v.  5  ,      

A.  "5 

vi.  4-10  

.      .      79 


xi.  23-27     .... 

•      •      79 

i.  12.      . 

xiv,  n 

xi,  31      

,      .      60 

i.  19.      . 



James  (cont.}  PAGE 

I.  22J0T.   .... 

'          •          •         13 

11.  i  . 

.    xii,  53 

j;    25  

•      •      •      74 
.    xiii 

111.  1-2     . 
HI.   15       ... 

.      .      .      .      42 

11.    23 



.......  xv'  72 

ii.  9  .......  xiv,  55 

"i-  ii      .......        9  Revelation 

iii.  12  .......   16   ii.  14   .......  72 

iii-  I5  .......   27   x.  4  .......  Xiv>  76 

in.  20  .......   61   xii.  10  ......  xii,  53 

v-  5  .......  xiv,  75   xiv.  13  ......  xiv,  76 

xix.  9  ......  xiv,  45 

2  Peter  xx.  12    ......  xiii,  16 

ii.  15       .......      72       xxi.  3     .......      31 

iii.  5-6   .......      61 

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